Polycystic Kidney Disease
(PKD; Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease; ADPKD; Adult Polycystic Disease; Polycystic Kidney Disease Type 2)
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- High blood pressure
- Blood in the urine
- Urinary tract infection
- Kidney stones
Additional, less common symptoms may include:
- Nail abnormalities
- Painful menstrual periods
- Joint pain
- Gene linkage study—a blood test that tests the DNA of the patient and family members with and without PKD
- Direct DNA sequencing—blood sample of patient’s DNA to look for presence of the PKD gene
- High blood pressure medicine—Since high blood pressure is common with PKD, medicines are often prescribed to control blood pressure.
- Pain medicine—Pain medicines must be used cautiously, since some of them can cause damage to the kidneys.
- Antibiotics—In the event of a urinary tract infection, aggressive treatment with antibiotics is needed to avoid damage to the kidneys.
- Surgery—Cysts may be drained through surgery to relieve pain, blockage, infection, or bleeding. Cyst drainage may also temporarily lower blood pressure. Sometimes, one or both kidneys may be removed if pain is severe. This procedure is called nephrectomy .
- Diet—A low-protein diet may reduce stress on the kidney. Avoiding salt can help keep normal blood pressure and drinking lots of water can help reduce the risk of kidney stones .
- Dialysis and transplantation—More than half of PKD patients develop kidney failure and need dialysis . Dialysis is used to remove wastes from the blood, since the kidneys cannot. At this stage, dialysis will be a lifelong requirement unless a kidney transplant from a donor can be done successfully.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org/
PKD Foundation http://www.pkdcure.org/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca/
ADPKD vs. ARPDK: What's the difference? PKD Foundation website. Available at: http://www.pkdcure.org/learn . Accessed October 18, 2012.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 3, 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Chang MY, Ong AC. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment. Nephron Physiol. 2007;108:1-7.
Childhood polycystic disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated November 30, 2009. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD). American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/142.xml?printxml . Updated January 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Renal dysplasia and cystic disease. American Urological Association website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=19 . Updated January 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In: Tierney L, McPhee S, Papadakis M. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/31/2012 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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