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- History of sexual abuse or trauma
- A frightening childhood medical procedure
- Painful first intercourse
- Relationship problems
- Sexual inhibition
- Fear of pregnancy
- Memory of previous pain due to infection, surgery, or other gynecologic conditions
Vaginal Dilation Exercises
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org/For%5FPatients
American Family Physician http://familydoctor.org
Sex Information and Education Council of Canada http://www.sieccan.org
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Diagnosis and management of vulvar skin disorders. Practice Bulletin No. 93 . May 2008.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Female sexual dysfunction. Practice Bulletin . 2011;119.
Butcher J. ABC of sexual health: female sexual problems II: sexual pain and sexual fears. BMJ . 1999;318:110-112.
Management of dyspareunia and vaginismus. Am Fam Physician . 2000;61(8):2511-2512. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2511.html. Accessed December 19, 2012.
McGuire H, Hawton K. Interventions for vaginismus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2009(1).
Vaginismus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated July 8, 2010. Accessed December 19, 2012.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013 -
- Update Date: 01/15/2014 -
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