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- History of sexual abuse or trauma
- A frightening childhood medical procedure
- Painful first intercourse
- Relationship problems
- Sexual inhibition
- Fear of pregnancy
- Memory of previous pain due to infection, surgery, or other gynecologic conditions
Vaginal Dilation Exercises
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org/For%5FPatients
American Family Physician http://familydoctor.org
Sex Information and Education Council of Canada http://www.sieccan.org
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Diagnosis and management of vulvar skin disorders. Practice Bulletin No. 93. May 2008.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Female sexual dysfunction. Practice Bulletin. 2011;119.
Butcher J. ABC of sexual health: female sexual problems II: sexual pain and sexual fears. BMJ. 1999;318:110-112.
Management of dyspareunia and vaginismus. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61(8):2511-2512. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2511.html. Accessed December 19, 2012.
McGuire H, Hawton K. Interventions for vaginismus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009(1).
Vaginismus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated July 8, 2010. Accessed December 19, 2012.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013 -
- Update Date: 00/11/2014 -
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