(PCS; Persistent PCS)
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- Previous head injury or concussion
- Increased age
- Substance abuse
- Previous anxiety issues or physical impairments
- Loss of consciousness during original trauma
- Loss of memory of the event
- Abnormal neurological tests after the event
- Being female
- Sleeping problems
- Lack of interest or enthusiasm
- Personality changes
- Being very sensitive to noise and/or light
- Difficulty with concentration
Rest and Gradual Recovery
- Over-the-counter or prescription pain relievers
- Antidepressants—may help manage depression, anxiety, sleep problems, mood changes, and fatigue
- Sleep medication—for severe sleep disturbance
Counseling and Support
- Develop healthier thought patterns about current situation.
- Create skills to manage problems with interpersonal relationships brought on by PCS symptoms.
- Learn coping skills and stress reduction techniques.
Brain Injury Association of America National Help Line: 800-444-6443 http://www.biausa.org
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca
Concussion and mild TBI. Centers for Disease Control website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/headsup/providers/index.html. Updated May 29, 2014. Accessed May 6, 2015.
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 23, 2015. Accessed May 6, 2015.
How long it too long? Brain Inj. 2015 Apr 14:1-6. [Epub ahead of print] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25870975. Accessed May 6, 2015.
Eisenberg MA, Meehan WP III, et al. Duration and course of post-concussive symptoms. Pediatrics. 2014 May. [Epub ahead of print].
Post-Concussion Syndrome. Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 9, 2015. Accessed May 6, 2015.
Postconcussion syndrome: why this diagnosis is controversial and what treatments may help. Harvard Mental Health Letter. 2007;24:6.
Potential effects of TBI. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/outcomes.html. Updated September 25, 2012. Accessed June 2, 2014.
Zemek RL, Farion KJ, et al. Prognosticators of persistent symptoms following pediatric concussion: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):259-265.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/06/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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