- Acute glomerulonephritis begins suddenly.
- Chronic glomerulonephritis develops gradually over several years.
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- Strep throat
- Impetigo—skin infection
- Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
- Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
- Inflammation of the blood vessels—vasculitis
- Viruses, such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C
- Inflammation of the tissue lining the heart—endocarditis
- Drugs and toxins
- Family history of glomerulonephritis
- The presence of a known cause of glomerulonephritis
- Exposure to a cause
- High blood pressure
- Blood in urine
- Foamy appearance of urine
- Less frequent urination
- Swelling in the morning, especially in the face, feet, hands, and abdomen
- Dry, itchy skin
- Nausea and vomiting
- Poor appetite
- Muscle cramps at night
- Swelling of the face, feet, hands, or abdomen
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Kidney biopsy
- Diuretics to reduce fluid retention
- Corticosteroids to suppress the immune system
- ACE inhibitors to control blood pressure and protein excretion
- Restrict salt and water intake.
- Restrict intake of potassium, phosphorous, and magnesium.
- Cut down on protein in the diet.
- Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise.
- Take calcium supplements.
Dialysis and Transplant
- Follow treatment plans for chronic disorders, such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
- Seek prompt treatment for a sore throat.
- Practice safe sex and avoid drug use to reduce the risk of HIV infection.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Glomerulonephritis (list of topics). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 1, 2010. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul. Accessed July 12, 2013.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/28/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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