- Corneal astigmatism—misshapen cornea
- Lenticular astigmatism—misshapen lens
|Normal Anatomy of the Eye|
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- Heredity—a family history of astigmatism, eye disease, or disorders such as keratoconus
- Eye surgery—certain types of eye surgery, such as cataract removal
- A history of corneal scarring or thinning
- A history of excessive nearsightedness or farsightedness
- Blurred or distorted vision, which may cause you to squint
- Visual acuity assessment test (VAT)—to assess distant vision
- Refractor test
- Keratoscope—to detect and measure the presence of corneal surface curvature
- Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)—laser beams are used to reshape the abnormal or irregular curve of the cornea
- Laser-assited in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)—laser beams used to reshape the curve of the cornea by removing corneal tissue
- Radical keratotomy (RK)—small incisions (cuts) are made partial thickness into the cornea
- Laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK)—not as commonly used, but it may benefit people with thin corneas, or those at high risk of an eye injury
Eye Smart—American Ophthalmology http://www.geteyesmart.org
National Eye Institute (NEI) http://www.nei.nih.gov
Canadian Ophthalmological Society http://www.cos-sco.ca
The Canadian National Institute for the Blind http://www.cnib.ca
Condon PI, Mulhern M, et al. Laser intrastromal keratomileusis for high myopia and myopic astigmatism. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997;81(3):199-206.
Goss DA. Refractive error changes in mixed astigmatism. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1999;19(5):438-40.
Holladay JT, Moran JR, et al. Analysis of aggregate surgically induced refractive change, prediction error, and intraocular astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001;27(1):61-79.
Komaroff AL, ed. Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster; 1999:423-425.
Kymionis GD, Aslanides M, et al. Laser in situ keratomileusis for residual hyperopic astigmatism after conductive keratoplasty. J Refract Surg. 2004;20(3):276-278.
Miller JM, Dobson V, et al. Comparison of preschool vision screening methods in a population with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42(5):917-924.
Pesudovs K. Autorefraction as an outcome measure of laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30(9):1921-1928.
Taneri S, Feit R, et al. Safety, efficacy, and stability indices of LASEK correction in moderate myopia and astigmatism. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30(10):2130-2137.
Tobaigy FM, Ghanem RC, et al. A Control-matched comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and laser in situ keratomileusis for low to moderate myopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142(6):901-908.
Varley GA, Huang D, Rapuano CJ, et al. LASIK for hyperopia, hyperopic astigmatism, and mixed astigmatism: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1604-1617.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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