- Community-acquired—from the community, such as home, school or daycare
- Nosocomial—in a hospital or healthcare setting
- Aspiration—happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit
|Infection in the Air Sacs of the Lungs|
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- Chronic conditions that affect the lungs, such as cystic fibrosis
- Exposure to tobacco smoke
- History of respiratory tract infections
- Allergies or asthma
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Birth defects of the heart or lungs
- Neuromuscular disorders that affect the lung function
- Chronic conditions that weaken the immune system
- Sickle-cell anemia
- Cough, which may or may not produce mucus
- Wheezing—a hoarse whistling sound
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath, may cause flaring of nose
- Chest pain
- Reduced activity levels
- Lack of appetite or difficulty feeding—may lead to dehydration
- Abdominal pain
- Bluish gray color around the nose, lips, or fingernails (severe cases)
- Blood tests
- Sputum culture
- Urine tests
- Chest x-ray
- What is causing the pneumonia
- Severity of symptoms
- Other factors, like the overall health of your child
- Oxygen therapy to increase levels of oxygen in the blood
- Nutrition and fluids through IV for children who have trouble feeding or keeping food down
- Medication delivered through IV
- Flu vaccine—in all children aged six months and older
- Pneumococcal vaccine:
- PCV13 is recommended in all children, and routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- PCV23 in children aged 2 years and older who have a high risk of infection or a suppressed immune system
- Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years as part of the DTaP vaccine
- Antiviral—for infants who are at high risk of developing pneumonia from respiratory syncytial virus
- Antibiotics—to prevent pneumonia in children with reduced immunity or certain underlying illnesses such as cystic fibrosis
- Do not expose your child to tobacco smoke. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection.
- Have your child avoid close contact with people who have a cold or the flu.
- Encourage your child to wash their hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick.
FamilyDoctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.cps.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Community-acquired pneumonia in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 7, 2014. Accessed February 27, 2014.
Dehydration. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid%5Fsafe/emergencies/dehydration.html. Updated July 2013. Accessed February 19, 2014.
Pneumonia. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/lung/pneumonia.html. Updated May 2011. Accessed February 19, 2014.
2/3/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rantala A, Jaakkola JJ, et al. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68582.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 02/03/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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