|Untreated gingivitis leading to periodontitis|
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- Untreated gingivitis
- Poor dietary habits
- Advancing age
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Metabolic syndrome—A condition marked by elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose, and body weight. Excess weight centered around the midsection is of particular concern.
- Suppressed immune system
- Smoking or chew tobacco
- Red, swollen, tender, or bleeding gums
- Receding gums that may expose the root of your teeth
- Loose teeth or teeth that fall out
- Persistent bad breath
- Presence of pus between your teeth
- Change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite down
- Swelling of face and jaw
- Weight loss in elderly
- Oral tablets
- Topical mouthwash
- Beads that are placed into the infected gum pockets
- Flap surgery—Sections of gum tissue are opened to access the root of the tooth for deep cleaning. The gum tissue is reshaped and put back into position.
- Bone and tissue graft—Tissue from another part of your body is used as a base to promote regrowth of healthy gum, bone, or connective tissue.
- Enamel matrix application—A special gel is applied to the tooth root to stimulate growth of healthy bone and tissue.
- Dental implants—An artificial tooth is placed in the jaw to hold a replacement tooth or bridge.
- Brush your teeth and tongue with fluoride toothpaste at least two times per day
- Use a soft-bristled toothbrush or a powered toothbrush if advised by your dentist
- Floss your teeth once per day
- Use a mouthwash after brushing and flossing your teeth
- If you smoke or chew tobacco, talk to your doctor or dentist about how you can quit successfully
- See your dentist as recommended for regular cleanings and check-ups
American Academy of Periodontology http://www.perio.org
American Dental Association http://www.mouthhealthy.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Periodontal (gum) disease: Cause, symptoms, and treatment. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/GumDiseases/PeriodontalGumDisease.htm. Updated August 2012. Accessed November 6, 2013.
Periodontal treatments and procedures. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/consumer/treatments%5Fprocedures. Accessed November 6, 2013.
Periodontitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated August 22, 2013. Accessed November 6, 2013.
What is gum disease? Academy of General Dentistry Know Your Teeth website. Available at: http://www.knowyourteeth.com/infobites/abc/article/?abc=G&iid=324&aid=1251. Updated January 2012. Accessed November 6, 2013.
What is periodontal disease? American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/patient-resources. Accessed November 6, 2013.
5/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nibali L, Tatarakis N, et al. Clinical review: Association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(3):913-920.
7/13/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Yaacob M, Worthington HV, et al. Powered versus manual toothbrushing for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 17;6.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 11/2013 -
- Update Date: 07/13/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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