(Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; HIE; Cerebral Hypoxia)
- The placenta separating too early from the uterine wall
- Pressure on the umbilical cord
- Certain medications
- Breathing in meconium from the amniotic fluid
- Birth trauma
- Previous still birth
- Fetal heart rate abnormalities
- Water breaking more than 12 hours before delivery
- Meconium in the fluid surrounding the baby before birth
- Hemorrhage occurring prior to childbirth
- Fever in the mother
- Prolonged first and second stages of labor
- Pre- or post-term labor
- Delivery with forceps or a vacuum device
- Poor muscle tone
- Extreme drowsiness
- Feeding difficulties, including poor suck
- Poor arousal
- Blue-colored skin or lips
- Difficulty breathing
Lowering Body Temperature
Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.ca
Birth asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). EBSCO PEMSoft website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed February 25, 2013.
Brain injury secondary to carotid intervention. J Endovasc Ther . 2007;14:219-231.
Edwards AD. The discovery of hypothermic neural rescue therapy for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Semin Pediatr neurol . 2009;16(4):200-206.
Harrington DJ, Redman CW, et al. The long-term outcome in surviving infants with Apgar zero at 10 minutes: A systematic review of the literature and hospital-based cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2007;196:463.e1-e5.
Hemphill J, Smith W. Neurologic critical care, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005: chap 269.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Neurographics website. Available at: http://www.asnr.org/neurographics/2/1/1/4.shtml. Accessed February 19, 2013.
Itoo BA, Al-Hawsawi ZM, et al. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Incidence and risk factors in North Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2003;24:147-153.
Perinatal asphyxia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 17, 2012. Accessed February 19, 2013.
Puohit D, Silverstein S. Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In: Gilman S, ed. MedLink Neurology . San Diego, CA: MedLink.
Schulzke SM, Rao S, et al. A systematic review of cooling for neuroprotection in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy-are we there yet? BMC Pediatr. 2007;7:30.
8/11/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Azzopardi D, Strohm B, et al. Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(2):140-149.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 08/11/2014 -
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