(GI Bleeding; Bleeding, Gastrointestinal; Bleeding, GI)
|The Digestive Tract|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Esophagus—the muscular tube that transports food from the throat to the stomach
- Upper portion of the small intestine
- Lower portion of the small intestine
- Large intestine
- Peptic ulcer—a sore in the lining of the stomach or the upper portion of the small intestine
- Esophageal varices—abnormally swollen veins within the lining of the esophagus
- Mallory-Weiss tears—tears in the lining of the esophagus
- Gastritis—inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the stomach
- Esophagitis—inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the esophagus
- Benign tumors—abnormal tissue growth that is not cancerous
- Stomach arteriovenous malformations
- Cancer—cancer in the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine
- Angiodysplasia—abnormal growth of blood vessels in the intestine
- Diverticulum—a pouch that forms on the wall of the large intestine
- Diverticulitis—occurs when the pouch becomes inflamed
- Colitis—inflammation of the colon (such as ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease)
- Hemorrhoids—enlarged veins in the anus or rectum
- Fissures—tears in the anus
- Polyps or colon cancer
- Bleeding disorders (some more than other)
- Excessive alcohol use
- Long-term use of steroids, blood-thinning medication, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or aspirin
- Prior GI or vascular surgery
- History of gastrointestinal disease or bleeding
- History of ulcers
- History of bacterial infections, such asHelicobacter pylori
- Blood in vomit
- Vomit that looks like coffee grounds
- Black, tarry stool
- Blood in the stool
- Black, tarry stool
- Blood in the stool
- Lightheadedness or faintness
- Shortness of breath
- Abdominal pain
- Blood tests
- Breath test
- Stool test to check for blood
- Endoscopy—a thin, lighted tube inserted down the throat to examine the digestive tract and collect tissue samples
- Colonoscopy—a thin, lighted tube inserted through the rectum and into the colon to examine the lining of the colon
- CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the digestive tract
- Nasogastric aspiration—a tube placed through the nose and into the stomach removes contents to check for bleeding
- Barium x-ray—x-ray that uses contrast material to see internal structures
- Radionuclide scanning—the use of small amounts of radioactive material and a camera to create blood flow images of the digestive tract
- Angiography—an x-ray of the blood vessels
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H-2 blockers to reduce stomach acid production
- Antibiotics to treat Helicobacter pylori or other infections
- Vasoconstrictors to reduce bleeding
- Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
- Probiotics to introduce healthy bacteria into the GI tract
- Injecting chemicals into the bleeding site
- Using a heat probe, electric current, or laser to seal off the bleeding site
- Using a band or clip to close off blood vessels
- Get treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection
- Reduce your intake of alcohol or NSAIDs if possible
- If you smoke, talk with your doctor about how you can quit
The American College of Gastroenterology http://www.gi.org
American Gastroenterological Association http://www.gastro.org
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology http://www.cag-acg.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 21, 2013. Accessed June 20, 2014.
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 21, 2013. Accessed June 20, 2014.
Barnert J, Messmann H. Management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;22(2):295-312.
Bleeding in the digestive tract. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bleeding. Updated March 27, 2012. Accessed June 20, 2014.
Common cancer types. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/commoncancers. Updated March 21, 2014. Accessed June 20, 2014.
Laine L, Jensen DM. Managment of patients with ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(3):345-360.
Laine L, Smith R, Min K, Chen C, Dubois RW. Systematic review: the lower gastrointestinal adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(5):751-767.
Loke YK, Derry S. Risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage with long-term use of aspirin: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2000;321:1183.
Wilcox CM, Alexander LN, Cotsonis GA, Clark WS. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Dig Dis Sci. 1997;42(5):990-997.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2014 -
- Update Date: 00/62/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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