All Forms of Smoking Are Bad for You
Pipes and Cigars
“Exotic” Smoking: Waterpipes, Cloves, and Bidis
Other Ways to Get Your Fix
No Safe Way to Smoke
American Lung Association http://www.lung.org
Smokefree—National Institutes of Health http://www.smokefree.gov
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Alternative smoked tobacco products. Maryland Resource Center website. Available at: http://mdquit.org/tobacco-information/alternative-smoked-tobacco-products. Updated August 6, 2014. Accessed March 19, 2015.
E-cigarettes: Questions and answers. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm225210.htm. Updated January 21, 2015. Accessed March 19, 2015.
Eissenberg T, Ward KD, et al. Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a US College campus: prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc Health. 2008;42(5):526-529.
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Iribarren C, Tekawa IS, et al. Effect of cigar smoking on the risk of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer in men. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(23):1773-1780.
Maziak W. The waterpipe: Time for action. Addiction. 2008;103(11):1763-1767.
Questions about smoking, tobacco, and health. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/002974-pdf.pdf. Accessed March 19, 2015.
Tobacco: Deadly in any form or disguise. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/communications/events/wntd/2006/Report%5Fv8%5F4May06.pdf. Accessed March 19, 2015.
Tobacco use. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 4, 2014. Accessed March 19, 2015.
Wald NJ, Watt HC. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases. BMJ. 1997;314(7098):1860-1863.
3/19/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: McRobbie H, Bullen C, et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD010216.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 03/19/2015 -
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