|The Male Reproductive System|
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- Family history of hypospadias
- Mother being older or having in vitro fertilization
- Environmental exposures or fetal growth problems during the pregnancy
- Opening of urethra is not at the tip—may be near the underside of the penis head or at the middle or base of the penis
- Downward curvature of the penis
- Abnormal spray when urinating
- Foreskin that only covers part of the head of the penis
- Reconstruct the opening of the urethra
- Straighten a curved penis
American Urological Association http://www.auanet.org
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Canadian Urological Association http://www.cua.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Guideline Clearinghouse. Hypospadias: guidelines in pediatric urology. AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=47872. Published March 2009. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypospadias. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 21, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypospadias: a birth defect of the penis. Healthy Children—Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/Pages/hypospadias-a-birth-defect-of-the-penis.aspx. Accessed September 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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