Premature Rupture of Membranes
|Fetus with Amniotic Sac|
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- Early dilation of the cervix (may be due to the weight of baby and placenta, or changes in the cervix itself)
- Infections of the vagina, uterus, or membranes surrounding the fetus
- PROM in earlier pregnancies
- Infection in the amniotic sac
- Other infections in mother (eg, chlamydia )
- Bleeding during the second and third trimester
- Certain procedures used to treat abnormal conditions of the cervix (eg, cervical conization )
- Lung disease during pregnancy
- Connective tissue disease
- Nutritional deficits
- Low body mass index
- Smoking during pregnancy
- Visual exam—the doctor may be able to see a trickle of fluid through the cervix, or a pool of fluid collected behind the cervix
- A nitrazine paper test—the doctor puts a small amount of fluid on a piece of paper to see if it is amniotic fluid
- Look at the fluid under a microscope to see if it is amniotic fluid
American Pregnancy Association http://www.americanpregnancy.org/
National Institute of Child Health and Development http://www.nichd.nih.gov/
About Kids Health http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org/index%5Fe.asp/
Cunningham FG, et al. Williams Obstetrics . 22nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2005.
DynaMed editors. Premature rupture of membranes at term (term PROM). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 2010. Accessed June 1, 2010.
Eisenberg A, Murkoff HE, Hathaway SE. What to Expect When You’re Expecting . New York: Workman Publishing; 2002.
Ferris DG. Management of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician . 1998;57(6).
Jeffcoat MK, et al. Periodontal disease and premature birth: results of a pilot intervention. J Periodontology . 2003;74(8);1214.
Kohnle D. Placental abruption. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated May 2008. Accessed December 1, 2008.
Pregnancy Info.net. Premature rupture of membranes: causes, risks, and treatment. Pregnancy Info.net website. Available at: http://www.pregnancy-info.net/prom.html . Accessed June 1, 2010.
Premature rupture of membranes. CHC Wausau Hospital Medical Library and Patient Education website. Available at: http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00061770.html . Accessed August 31, 2005.
Premature Rupture of Membranes, Practice Bulletin No. 80, April 2007, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/31/2012 -
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