Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes
|Fetus with Amniotic Sac|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Baby is born prematurely and is not fully developed—preterm delivery
- Placenta separates from the uterus before the baby is delivered—placental abruption
- Umbilical cord is squeezed between the baby and the pelvis—prolapsed umbilical cord
- Infection in the uterus or baby
- PPROM in earlier pregnancies
- Infection in the amniotic sac
- Other infections in mother (chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis)
- Preterm labor
- Bleeding during the second and third trimester
- Certain procedures used to treat abnormal conditions of the cervix (such as cervical conization)
- Lung disease during pregnancy
- Connective tissue disease
- Nutritional deficits
- Low body mass index
- Low socio-economic status
- Smoking during pregnancy
- Visual exam—the doctor may be able to see a trickle of fluid through the cervix, or a pool of fluid collected behind the cervix
- A nitrazine paper test—the doctor puts a small amount of fluid on a piece of paper to see if it is amniotic fluid
- Look at the fluid under a microscope to see if it is amniotic fluid
- Ultrasound—using sound waves, the doctor examines the baby and amniotic sac to see if there is plenty of fluid and the baby is doing well
34 weeks or longer of gestation
- Monitor the baby’s heart rate
- Induce labor by giving you medicines
- Possibly give antibiotics
32-33 weeks of gestation
- Induce labor if your baby’s lungs have matured enough
- Give antibiotics
- Possibly give steroids to help your baby's lungs develop faster
- Try to delay delivery until completion of 33 weeks gestation
24-31 weeks of gestation
Less than 24 weeks of gestation
American Pregnancy Association http://www.americanpregnancy.org
National Institute of Child Health and Development http://www.nichd.nih.gov
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
Jeffcoat MK, Hauth JC, Geurs NC, et al. Periodontal disease and premature birth: Results of a pilot intervention. J Periodontology. 2003;74(8);1214.
Majerone BA. Baceterial vaginosis: An update. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57(6):1285-1289.
Placental abruption. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 19, 2014. Accessed May 28, 2015.
Practice Bulletins No. 139: Premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(4):918-930.
Premature rupture of membranes: Causes, risks, and treatment. Pregnancy Info website. Available at: http://www.pregnancy-info.net/prom.html. Accessed May 28, 2015.
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 1, 2015. Accessed May 28, 2015.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/05/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.