Alzheimer's Disease and Non-Alzheimer's Dementia
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba.Lancet. 1992;340:1136-1139.
2 Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al. Proof of efficacy of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1996;29:47-56.
3 Hofferberth B. The efficacy of EGb 761 in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on different levels of investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1994;9:215-222.
4 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998.
5 van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:1183-1194.
6 Le Bars P. Conflicting results on ginkgo research. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2002;9:19-20.
7 Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano). 1993;5:123-133.
8 Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, et al. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:136-140.
9 Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1992;2:149-155.
10 Nerozzi D, Aceti F, Melia E, et al. Phosphatidylserine and memory disorders in the aged [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ther. 1987;120:399-404.
11 Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in Parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;317:1235-1246.
12 Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1992;28:61-66.
13 Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988;24:130-134.
14 Villardita C, Grioli S, Salmeri G, et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:84-93.
15 Palmieri G, Palmieri R, Inzoli MR, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clin Trials J. 1987;24:73-83.
16 Knopman D, Henderson VW. DHEA for Alzheimer's disease: a modest showing by a superhormone. Neurology. 2003;60:1060-1061.
17 Wolkowitz OM, Kramer JH, Reus VI, et al. DHEA treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2003;60:1071-1076.
18 De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003;25:178-193.
19 Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:863-866.
20 Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2003;28:53-59.
21 Hudson S, Tabet N. Acetyl-l-carnitine for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;CD003158.
22 Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:61-71.
23 Szatmari SZ, Whitehouse PJ. Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia [review]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;CD003119.
24 Leathwood PD, Schlosser B. Phosphatidylcholine, choline and cholinergic function. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1986;29:49-67.
25 Gauthier S, Bouchard R, Bacher Y, et al. Progress report on the Canadian Multicentre Trial of tetrahydroaminoacridine with lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. Can J Neurol Sci. 1989;16:543-546.
26 Etienne P, Dastoor D, Gauthier S, et al. Alzheimer disease: lack of effect of lecithin treatment for 3 months. Neurology. 1981;31:1552-1554.
27 Weintraub S, Mesulan MM, Auty R, et al. Lecithin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1983;40:527-528.
28 Heyman A, Schmechel D, Wilkinson W, et al. Failure of long term high-dose lecithin to retard progression of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1987;24:279-286.
29 Zeisel SH. Dietary influences on neurotransmission. Adv Pediatr. 1986;33:23-47.
30 Wurtman RJ, Growdon JH. Dietary enhancement of CNS neurotransmitters. Hosp Pract. 1978;13:71-77.
31 Russell RW. Continuing the search for cholinergic factors in cognitive dysfunction. Life Sci. 1996;58:1965-1970.
32 Xu SS, Gao ZX, Weng Z, et al. Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995;16:391-395.
33 Zhang RW, Tang XC, Han YY, et al. Drug evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory disorders [in Chinese; English abstract]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1991;12:250-252.
34 Zhang Z, Wang X, Chen Q, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of huperzine Alpha in treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;82:941-944.
35 Xu SS, Cai ZY, Qu ZW, et al. Huperzine-A in capsules and tablets for treating patients with Alzheimer disease. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999;20:486-490.
36 Wood JL, Allison RG. Effects of consumption of choline and lecithin on neurological and cardiovascular systems. Fed Proc. 1982;41:3015-3021.
37 Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH, Wurtman RJ. Relations between dietary choline or lecithin intake, serum choline levels, and various metabolic indices. Metabolism. 1978;27:953-960.
38 Davis KL, Berger PA. Pharmacological investigations of the cholinergic imbalance hypotheses of movement disorders and psychosis. Biol Psychiatry. 1978;13:23-49.
39 Zeisel SH. Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:473-481.
40 Sanchez CJ, Hooper E, Garry PJ, et al. The relationship between dietary intake of choline, choline serum levels, and cognitive function in healthy elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1984;32:208-212.
41 Leathwood PD, Schlosser B. Phosphatidylcholine, choline and cholinergic function. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. 1986;29:49-67.
42 Ferris SH, Sathananthan G, Gershon S, et al. Senile dementia: treatment with Deanol. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1977;25:241-244.
43 Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6:31-43.
44 Balestreri R, Fontana L, Astengo F. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1987;35:425-430.
45 Dragunow M, Faull RL. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1988;9:193-194.
46 Fenzl E, Apecechea M, Schaltenbrand R, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine administered intravenously, in addition of standard therapy, to patients suffering from an apoplectic insult. In: Krieglstein J, ed. Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1986: 430-434.
47 Manconi E, Binaghi F, Pitzus F. A double-blind clinical trial of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency of vascular and degenerative origin. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1986;30:702-709. Cited by: Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6:31-43.
48 Peruzza M, DeJacobis M. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the efficacy and safety of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular or degenerative senile cerebral dysfunction. Adv Ther. 1986;3:201-209. Cited by: Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6:31-43.
49 Blaha L, Erzigkeit H, Adamczyk A, et al. Clinical evidence of the effectiveness of vinpocetine in the treatment of organic psychosyndrome. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1989;4:103-111. Cited by: Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6:31-43.
50 Fisman M, Mersky H, Helmes E. Double-blind trial of 2-dimethylaminoethanol in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiaty. 1981;138:970-972.
51 Ballard CG, O'Brien JT, Reichelt K, et al. Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:553-558.
52 Holmes C, Hopkins V, Hensford C, et al. Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17:305-308.
53 Calvani M, Carta A, Caruso G, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;663:483-486.
54 Cipolli C, Chiari G. Effects of L-acetylcarnitine on mental deterioration in the aged: initial results [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ther. 1990;132(suppl 6):479-509.
55 Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Bonati, PA, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10:75-79.
56 Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1994;20:169-176.
57 Spagnoli A, Lucca U, Menasce G, et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1991;41:1726-1732.
58 Vecchi GP, Chiari G, Cipolli C, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment of mental impairment in the elderly: evidence from a multicenter study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1991;2(suppl 2):159-168.
59 Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1996;47:705-711.
60 Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl-levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:1137-1141.
61 Campi N, Todeschini GP, Scarzella L. Selegiline versus L-acetylcarnitine in the treatment of Alzheimer-type dementia. Clin Ther. 1990;12:306-314.
62 Rai G, Wright G, Scott L, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr Med Res Opin. 1990;11:638-647.
63 Bonavita E. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1986;24:511-516.
64 Thal LJ, Calvani M, Amato A, et al. A 1-year controlled trial of acetyl-l-carnitine in early-onset AD. Neurology. 2000;55:805-810.
65 Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1996;47:705-711.
66 Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1216-1222.
67 Stough C, Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. Int J Neuropsychopharm. 2001;4:131-134.
68 Hudson S, Tabet N. Acetyl-l-carnitine for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;CD003158.
69 Snow LA, Hovanec L, Brandt J. A Controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:431-437.
70 Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:863-866.
71 Bilikiewicz A, Gaus W. Colostrinin (a naturally occurring, proline-rich, polypeptide mixture) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2004;6:17-26.
72 Petersen RC, Thomas RG, Grundman M, et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med. 2005 April 13. [Epub ahead of print]
73 Stott DJ, Macintosh G, Lowe GD, et al. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:1320-1326.
74 Freund-Levi YF, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD Study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1402-1408.
75 Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin E supplementation and cognitive function in women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2462-2468.
76 Napryeyenko O, Borzenko I. Ginkgo biloba special extract in dementia with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:4-11.
77 Freund-Levi Y, Basun H, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
78 van Uffelen JG, Chin A Paw MJ, Hopman-Rock M, et al. The effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality of life in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, controlled trial. Qual Life Res. 2007 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]
79 Scripnikov A, Khomenko A, Napryeyenko O. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomised controlled trial. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157:295-300.
80 Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA. 1997;278:1327-1332.
81 Sun Y, Lu CJ, Chien KL, et al. Efficacy of multivitamin supplementation containing vitamins B(6) and B(12) and folic acid as adjunctive treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor in Alzheimer's disease: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in taiwanese patients. Clin Ther. 2007;29:2204-2214.
82 Dodge HH, Zitzelberger T, Oken BS, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline. Neurology. 2008 Feb 27.
83 Bornhoft G, Maxion-Bergemann S, Matthiessen PF. External validity of clinical trials for treatment of dementia with ginkgo biloba extracts.] Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2008 Mar 11.
84 Li J, Wu HM, Zhou RL, Liu GJ, Dong BR. Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008;(2):CD005592.
85 Riemersma-van der Lek RF, Swaab DF, Twisk J, et al. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;299:2642-2655.
86 McCarney R, Fisher P, Iliffe S, et al. Ginkgo biloba for mild to moderate dementia in a community setting: a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 Jun 9.
87 Jia X, McNeill G, Avenell A. Does taking vitamin, mineral and fatty acid supplements prevent cognitive decline? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2008;21:317-336.
88 Aisen PS, Schneider LS, Sano M, et al. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300:1774-1783.
89 Birks J, Evans JG. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009;(1):CD003120.
90 Ford AH, Flicker L, Alfonso H, et al. Vitamins B(12), B(6), and folic acid for cognition in older men. Neurology. 2010;75(17):1540-1547.
91 Weinmann S, Roll S, Schwarzbach C, Vauth C, Willich SN. Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2010;10:14.
92 Jansen S, Forbes D, Duncan V, Morgan D, Malouf R. Melatonin for the treatment of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD003802.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.