Low Glycemic Index Diets
- Diet, Low-GI
- Diet, Low Glycemic Index
- GI Diet
- GL Diet
- Low Glycemic Load Diet
- Glucose Revolution
- Sugar Busters
- What Is the Glycemic Index?
- How to Follow a Low Glycemic Index Diet
- Do Low Glycemic Index Diets Aid in Weight Loss? Problems with the Theory
- Is the Glycemic Index Even the Right Measurement?
- What Is the Direct Evidence Regarding Whether Low-GI Diets Enhance Weight Loss?
- Does the Low-GI Diet Offer Any Health Benefits?
- Other Uses of Low Glycemic Index Diet
- The Bottom Line
What Is the Glycemic Index?
How to Follow a Low Glycemic Index Diet
Do Low Glycemic Index Diets Aid in Weight Loss? Problems With the Theory
The Satiety Index
Is the Glycemic Index Even the Right Measurement?
What Is the Direct Evidence Regarding Whether Low-GI Diets Enhance Weight Loss?
Does the Low-GI Diet Offer Any Health Benefits?
Heart Disease Prevention
Low-GI Diet and Diabetes
Other Uses of Low Glycemic Index Diet
The Bottom Line
1 Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM, Reaven GM. Comparison of plasma glucose and insulin responses to mixed meals of high-, intermediate-, and low-glycemic potential. Diabetes Care. 1988;11:323-329.
2 Laine DC, Thomas W, Levitt MD, et al. Comparison of predictive capabilities of diabetic exchange lists and glycemic index of foods. Diabetes Care. 1987;10:387-394.
3 Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, et al. Glycemic index of foods in individual subjects. Diabetes Care. 1990;13:126-132.
4 Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, et al. Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:562-564.
5 Wolever TM, Nuttall FQ, Lee R, et al. Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index. Diabetes Care. 1985;8:418-428.
6 Rodin J, Reed D, Jamner L. Metabolic effects of fructose and glucose: implications for food intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:683-689.
7 Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:675-690.
8 Holt SH, Brand Miller JC, Petocz P. Interrelationships among postprandial satiety, glucose and insulin responses and changes in subsequent food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:788-797.
9 Rodin J, Reed D, Jamner L. Metabolic effects of fructose and glucose: implications for food intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:683-689.
10 Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity,diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002;287:2414-2423.
11 van Amelsvoort JM, Westrate JA. Amylose-amylopectin ratio in a meal affects postprandial variables in male volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:712-718.
12 Holt S, Brand J, Soveny C, et al. Relationship of satiety to postprandial glycaemic, insulin and cholecystokinin responses. Appetite. 1992;18:129-141.
13 Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P. Interrelationships among postprandial satiety, glucose and insulin responses and changes in subsequent food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:788-797.
14 Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, et al. A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:947-951.
15 Slabber M, Barnard HC, Kuyl JM, et al. Effects of a low-insulin-response, energy-restricted diet on weight loss and plasma insulin concentrations in hyperinsulinemic obese females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:48-53.
16 Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1455-1461.
17 Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:560-566.
18 Frost G, Leeds AA, Dore CJ, et al. Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. Lancet. 1999;353:1045-1048.
19 van Dam RM, Visscher AW, Feskens EJ, et al. Dietary glycemic index in relation to metabolic risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:726-731.
20 Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Kalmusky J, et al. Low-glycemic index diet in hyperlipidemia: use of traditional starchy foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:66-71.
21 Saydah SH, Loria CM, Eberhardt MS, et al. Subclinical states of glucose intolerance and risk of death in the US. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:447-453.
22 Job FP, Wolfertz J, Meyer R, et al. Hyperinsulinism in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 1994;5:487-492.
23 Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:952-957.
24 Pyorala K, Savolainen E, Kaukola S, et al. Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor: relationship to other risk factors and predictive value during 9 1/2-year follow-up of the Helsinki Policemen Study population. Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1985;701:38-52.
25 Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, et al. Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 1998;279:1955-1961.
26 Haffner SM. The importance of hyperglycemia in the nonfasting state to the development of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Rev. 1998;19:583-592.
27 Frost G, Leeds A, Trew G, et al. Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low glycemic diet. Metabolism. 1998;47:1245-1251.
28 Frost G, Keogh B, Smith D, et al. The effect of low-glycemic carbohydrate on insulin and glucose response in vivo and in vitro in patients with coronary heart disease. Metabolism. 1996;45:669-672.
29 Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Collier GR, et al. Metabolic effects of a low-glycemic-index diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:968-975.
30 Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:545-550.
31 Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;277:472-477.
32 Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:921-930.
33 van Dam RM, Visscher AW, Feskens EJ, et al. Dietary glycemic index in relation to metabolic risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:726-731.
34 Feskens EJ, Bowles CH, Kromhout D. Carbohydrate intake and body mass index in relation to the risk of glucose intolerance in an elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:136-140.
35 Feskens EJM, Kromhout D. Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;130:1001-1008.
36 Baird JD. Diet and the development of clinical diabetes. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1972;9(suppl 1):621-639.
37 Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Blohmé G, et al. Dietary habits and incidence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a population of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:708-712.
38 Wolever TM. The glycemic index: flogging a dead horse? Diabetes Care. 1997;20:452-456.
39 Coulston AM, Reaven GM. Much ado about (almost) nothing. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:241-243.
40 Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, et al. A reduced-glycemic load diet in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:773-779.
41 Tavani A, Bosetti C, Negri E, et al. Carbohydrates, dietary glycaemic load and glycaemic index, and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 2003;89:722-726.
42 Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, et al. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2261-2267.
43 Terry PD, Jain M, Miller AB, et al. Glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of colorectal cancer in women: a prospective cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:914-916.
44 Earnest CP, Lancaster SL, Rasmussen CJ, et al. Low vs. high glycemic index carbohydrate gel ingestion during simulated 64-km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:466-472.
45 Noakes M, Lau CW, Bowen J, et al. The effect of a low glycaemic index (GI) ingredient substituted for a high GI ingredient in two complete meals on blood glucose and insulin levels, satiety and energy intake in healthy lean women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(suppl):S45.
46 Chiu CJ, Hubbard LD, Armstrong J, et al. Dietary glycemic index and carbohydrate in relation to early age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:880-886.
47 McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, et al. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1466-75.
48 Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, et al. The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:2200-2209.
49 Wu CL, Williams C. A low glycemic index meal before exercise improves endurance running capacity in men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:510-527.
50 Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:2092-2102.
51 Smith RN, Mann NJ, Braue A, et al. A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:107-115.
52 Sichieri R, Moura AS, Genelhu V, et al. An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:707-713.
53 Clapp JF, Lopez B. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2007;5:231-242.
54 Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(22):2102-2113.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.