Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Food Allergen Identification and Avoidance
- Green Banana
- Red Raspberry
- Sangre de Drago
- Slippery Elm
- Tormentil Root (Potentilla tormentilla)
- Witch Hazel
- Wood Creosote
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
- Lactobacillus acidophilus
- L. bulgaricus
- L. reuteri (often studied in the proprietary form Lactobacillus GG )
- L. plantarum
- L. casei
- B. bifidus
- Saccharomyces salivarius
- Streptococcus thermophilus
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Buydens P, Debeuckelaere S. Efficacy of SF 68 in the treatment of acute diarrhea. A placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996;31:887-891.
2 Scarpignato C, Rampal P. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: a clinical pharmacological approach. Chemotherapy. 1995;41(suppl 1):48-81.
3 Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travelers. J Travel Med. 1997;4:41-43.
4 Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of traveller's diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG . Ann Med. 1990;22:53-56.
5 Kirchhelle VA, Fruhwein N, Toburen D. Treatment of persistent diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii . Results of a prospective study [in German; English abstract]. Fortschr Med. 1996;114:136-140.
6 Kollaritsch VH, Holst H, Grobara P, et al. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii . Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study [translated from German]. Fortschr Med. 1993;111:152-156.
7 Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA. 1996;275:870-876.
8 Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30:54-60.
9 Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr. 1999;134:15-20.
10 Costa-Ribeiro H, Ribeiro TC, Mattos AP, et al. Limitations of probiotic therapy in acute, severe dehydrating diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr . 2003;36:112-115.
11 Colombel JF, Cortot A, Neut C, et al. Yoghurt with Bifidobacterium longum reduces erythromycin-induced gastrointestinal effects. Lancet. 1987;2:43.
12 Surawicz CM, Elmer GW, Speelman P, et al. Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii : a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1989;96:981-988.
13 Surawicz CM, McFarland LV, Elmer G, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with vancomycin and Saccharomyces boulardii . Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84:1285-1287.
14 McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, et al. Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90:439-448.
15 Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics. 1999;104:e64.
16 Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Ann Med. 1990;22:57-59.
17 Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr. 1999;135:564-568.
18 Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, et al. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:883-889.
19 Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP. 1990;24:382-384.
20 Urbancsek H, Kazar T, Mezes I, et al. Results of a double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Antibiophilus in patients with radiation-induced diarrhoea. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:391-396.
21 Unger C, Haring B, Kruse A, et al. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled phase III study of an E. coli extract plus 5-fluorouracil versus 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51:332-338.
22 Elmer GW, Moyer KA, Vega R, et al. Evaluation of Saccharomyces boulardii for patients with HIV-related diarrhoea and in healthy volunteers receiving antifungals. Microecol Ther. 1995;25:23-31.
23 Bleichner G, Blehaut H, Mentec H, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii prevents diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23:517-523.
24 Plein K, Hotz J. Therapeutic effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on mild residual symptoms in a stable phase of Crohn's disease with special respect to chronic diarrhea—a pilot study. Z Gastroenterol. 1993;31:129-134.
25 Madden JA, Hunter JO. A review of the role of the gut microflora in irritable bowel syndrome and the effects of probiotics. Br J Nutr. 2002;88(suppl 1):S67-S72.
26 Rembacken BJ, Snelling AM, Hawkey PM, et al. Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;354:635-639.
27 Faubion WA, Sandborn WJ. Probiotic therapy with E. coli for ulcerative colitis: take the good with the bad. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:630-631.
28 Szajewska H, Mrukowicz JZ. Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children: a systematic review of published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;33(suppl 4):S17-S25.
29 Ashraf H, Mahalanabis D, Mitra AK, et al. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum in the treatment of shigellosis in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:1373-1378.
30 Casswall TH, Sarker SA, Albert MJ, et al. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in infants in rural Bangladesh with oral immunoglobulins from hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12:563-568.
31 Casswall TH, Sarker SA, Faruque SM, et al. Treatment of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli -induced diarrhoea in children with bovine immunoglobulin milk concentrate from hyperimmunized cows: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000;35:711-718.
32 Freedman DJ, Tacket CO, Delehanty A, et al. Milk immunoglobulin with specific activity against purified colonization factor antigens can protect against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.J Infect Dis . 1998;177:662-667.
33 Greenberg PD, Cello JP. Treatment of severe diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum with oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996;13:348-354.
34 Mitra AK, Mahalanabis D, Ashraf H, et al. Hyperimmune cow colostrum reduces diarrhoea due to rotavirus: a double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:996-1001.
35 Okhuysen PC, Chappell CL, Crabb J, et al. Prophylactic effect of bovine anti-Cryptosporidium hyperimmune colostrum immunoglobulin in healthy volunteers challenged with Cryptosporidium parvum . Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1324-1329.
36 Plettenberg A, Stoehr A, Stellbrink HJ, et al. A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea. Clin Investig. 1993;71:42-45.
37 Sarker SA, Casswall TH, Mahalanabis D, et al. Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunoglobulin from immunized bovine colostrum. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998;17:1149-1154.
38 Tacket CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, et al. Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47:276-283.
39 Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Link H, et al. Protection by milk immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli . N Engl J Med. 1988;318:1240-1243.
40 Ylitalo S, Uhari M, Rasi S, et al. Rotaviral antibodies in the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87:264-267.
41 Ashraf H, Rahman MM, Fuchs GJ, Mahalanabis D. Folic acid in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Acta Pædiatr. 1998;87:1113-1115.
42 Haffejee IE. Effect of oral folate on duration of acute infantile diarrhoea [letter]. Lancet. 1988;2:334-335.
43 Rabbani GH, Teka T, Zaman B, et al. Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:554-560.
44 Loeb H, Vandenplas Y, Wursch P, Guesry P. Tannin-rich carob pod for the treatment of acute-onset diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1989;8:480-485.
45 Eherer AJ, Santa Ana CA, Porter J, et al. Effect of psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, and wheat bran on secretory diarrhea induced by phenolphthalein. Gastroenterology. 1993;104:1007-1012.
46 Holodniy M, Koch J, Mistal M, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of orally administered SP-303 for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:3267-3273.
47 Wanke CA, Pleskow D, Degirolami PC, et al. A medium chain triglyceride-based diet in patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea reduces diarrhea and malabsorption: a prospective, controlled trial. Nutrition. 1996;12:766-771.
48 Grant J, Mahanty S, Khadir A, et al. Wheat germ supplement reduces cyst and trophozoite passage in people with giardiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 2001;65:705-710.
49 Meyer-Wegener J, Paulus M. Immune-stimulating therapy with Eleutherococcus senticosus for antibiotic-induced diarrhea [in German; English abstract]. Med Welt. 1997;48:493-496.
50 Izadnia F, Wong CT, Kocoshis SA. Brewer’s yeast and Saccharomyces boulardii both attenuate Clostridium difficile -induced colonic secretion in the rat. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43:2055-2060.
51 Schellenberg D, Bonington A, Champion C, et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea with brewer’s yeast [letter]. Lancet. 1994;343:171-172.
52 Rabbani GH, Butler T, Knight J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae . J Infect Dis. 1987;155:979-984.
53 James JM, Burks AW. Food-associated gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1996;8:471-475.
54 Swagerty DL Jr, Walling AD, Klein RM. Lactose intolerance. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65:1845-1850.
55 Personal experience on acupuncture treatment of diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med. 1990;10:163-167.
56 Feng WL. Acupuncture treatment for 30 cases of infantile chronic diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med. 1989;9:106-107.
57 Lin Y, Zhou Z, Shen W, et al. Clinical and experimental studies on shallow needling technique for treating childhood diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med. 1993;13:107-114.
58 Lin YC. Observation of therapeutic effects of acupuncture treatment in 170 cases of infantile diarrhea. J Tradit Chin Med. 1987;7:203-204.
59 Su Z. Acupuncture treatment of infantile diarrhea: a report of 1050 cases. J Tradit Chin Med. 1992;12:120-121.
60 Thibault H, Aubert-Jacquin C, Goulet O. Effects of long-term consumption of a fermented infant formula (with Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065) on acute diarrhea in healthy infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr . 2004;39:147-152.
61 Wullt M, Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhoea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Infect Dis . 2003;35:365-7.
62 Beniwal RS, Arena VC, Thomas L, et al. A randomized trial of yogurt for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci . 2003;48:2077-2082.
63 Mansour-Ghanaei F, Dehbashi N, Yazdanparast K, Shafaghi A. Efficacy of saccharomyces boulardii with antibiotics in acute amoebiasis. World J Gastroenterol . 2003;9:1832-1833.
64 Subbotina MD, Timchenko VN, Vorobyov MM, et al. Effect of oral administration of tormentil root extract ( Potentilla tormentilla ) on rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Pediatr InfectDis J . 2003;22:706-710.
65 Kuge T, Shibata T, Willett MS, et al. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized comparison of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of Seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, and loperamide in adults with acute nonspecific diarrhea. Clin Ther . 2004;26:1644-1651.
66 Kuge T, Shibata T, Willett MS. Wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medicine: a single-dose, dose-escalation safety and pharmacokinetic study. Pharmacotherapy . 2003;23:1391-1400.
67 Cummings JH, Christie S, Cole TJ. A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:1139-1145
68 Kotowska M, Albrecht P, Szajewska H,et al. Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21:583-590.
69 Kurugol Z, Koturoglu G. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94:44-47.
70 McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:812-822
71 Bousvaros A, Guandalini S, Baldassano RN, et al. A Randomized, Double-blind Trial of Lactobacillus GG Versus Placebo in Addition to Standard Maintenance Therapy for Children with Crohn's Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis . 2005;11:833-839.
72 Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GETAID trial. Gut. 2005 Dec 23 [Epub ahead of print].
73 Leung WK, Wu JC, Liang SM, et al. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1574-1580.
74 Becker B, Kuhn U, Hardewig-Budny B. Double-blind, randomized evaluation of clinical efficacy and tolerability of an apple pectin-chamomile extract in children with unspecific diarrhea. Arzneimittelforschung . 2006;56:387-393.
75 Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Radzikowski A. Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2006;149:367-372.
76 Briand V, Buffet P, Genty S, et al. Absence of efficacy of nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1170-1175.
77 Wullt M, Johansson Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v enhances the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci . 2007 Apr 10 [Epub ahead of print].
78 Zaman S, Mannan J, Lange S, et al. B 221, a medical food containing antisecretory factor reduces child diarrhoea: a placebo controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1655-1659.
79 Beausoleil M, Fortier N, Guenette S, et al. Effect of a fermented milk combining lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Gastroenterol. 2007;21:732-736.
80 Mao M, Yu T, Xiong Y, et al. Effect of a lactose-free milk formula supplemented with bifidobacteria and streptococci on the recovery from acute diarrhoea. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17:30-34.
81 Ruszczynski M, Radzikowski A, Szajewska H. Clinical trial: effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (strains E/N, Oxy, and Pen) in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr 13.
82 Alfaleh K, Bassler D. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008;(1):CD005496.
83 Henker J, Laass MW, Blokhin BM, et al. Placebo versus probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 for treating diarrhea of greater than 4 days duration in infants and toddlers. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 May 8.
84 Guandalini S. Probiotics for children with diarrhea: an update. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 May 23.
85 Patro B, Golicki D, Szajewska H. Meta-analysis: zinc supplementation for acute gastroenteritis in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
86 Lazzerini M, Ronfani L. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD005436.
87 Lin HC, Hsu CH, Chen HL, et al. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008;122:693-700.
88 Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C, Bulpitt CJ. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):80.
89 Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, Reifer C, Miller LE. Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(7):1636-1641.
90 Allen S, Martinez E, Gregorio G, Dans L. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD003048.
91 Aponte G, Mancilla C, Pariasca N, Galarza R. Probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(11):CD007401.
92 Cimperman L, Bayless G, Best K, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults. J Clin Gastroenterol . 2011 May 5.
93 Johnston BC, Goldenberg JZ, Vandvik PO, Sun X, Guyatt GH. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;11:CD004827.
94 Corrêa NB, Penna FJ, Lima FM, Nicoli JR, Filho LA. Treatment of acute diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii in infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53(5):497-501.
95 Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-1369.
96 Johnston BC, Ma SS, Goldenberg JZ. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(12):878-888.
97 Francavilla R, Lionetti E, et al. Randomised clinical trial: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 vs. placebo in children with acute diarrhoea--a double-blind study. Aliment Pharmacol Therap . 2012;36(4):363-369.
98 Chatterjee S, Kar P, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. J Assoc Physicians India. 2013;61(10):708-712.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 00/72/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.