Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer
Alcohol and Smoking Combined
Ingestion of Irritants
- Nitrosamines, which naturally occur in foods in many areas of the world where rates of esophageal cancer are high, such as Northern China
- Drain cleaners or lye (the liquid obtained by leaching wood ashes), which may predate the development of cancer by as much as 40 years
- Very hot beverages
- Toxins in pickled vegetables
Esophageal cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 2, 2013. Accessed August 2, 2013.
Esophageal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/esophageal. Accessed August 2, 2013.
Esophagus cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003098-pdf.pdf. Accessed August 2, 2013.
1/13/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed Wysowski DK. Reports of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonate use. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:89-90.
8/23/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cardwell CR, Abnet CC, Cantwell MM, Murray LJ. Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of esophageal cancer. JAMA. 2010;304(6):657-663.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/20/2015 -
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