Diagnosis and Prognosis of Bladder Cancer
Review of Medical History
- Have you noticed blood in your urine?
- Do you have any urinary symptoms such as increased desire to urinate, urinating more often, or pain or burning when urinating?
- Do you have any abdominal or back pain?
- Do you have any other new or unusual symptoms, such as increased fatigue, decreased energy, decreased appetite, weight loss, fever, swollen feet and/or legs, or bone pain?
Diagnostic Testing and Cytology
- CT scan —This type of x-ray uses a computer to produce cross-sectional images of the inside of the body.
- MRI scan —This test uses magnetic waves to produce images of the inside of the body. Using a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer, an MRI produces 2D and 3D pictures.
- Intravenous pyelography —During this test, a dye is injected into one of your veins and a series of x-rays are taken. The dye courses through the urinary system, allowing x-ray pictures to be more clear and detailed.
- Bone scan —A bone scan is done through injecting a radioactive material into the blood which will concentrate in areas of bone affected by cancer. Then, three hours later, you will lie on a table. Special cameras move slowly above and below the table taking pictures. This allows the doctor to see areas of the bone that may contain cancer cells. If such areas are present, it means the cancer has spread beyond the bladder.
- Biopsy studies
- Scanning tests
- Stage 0 : Cancer cells are only identified on the bladder’s inner lining. This is considered to be superficial bladder cancer—sometimes called carcinoma in situ.
- Stage I : Cancer cells are identified in the bladder’s deeper tissues, but not in the bladder’s layer of muscle.
- Stage II : Cancer cells can be found in the bladder’s muscles.
- Stage III : Cancer cells have spread to the outermost layer of the bladder, and may have invaded the prostate in men or the cervix, uterus, or vagina in women.
- Stage IV : Cancer cells have spread to the tissue that lines the wall of the abdomen and/or pelvis. There may be cancer cells identified within lymph nodes and/or in distant locations, such as the liver, lungs, or bone.
|Stages of Bladder Cancer|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Bladder cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladdercancer/. Accessed June 5, 2013.
Bladder cancer. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=100. Updated March 2013. Accessed June 5, 2013.
What you need to know about bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/bladder . Updated August 30, 2010. Accessed June 5, 2013.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013 -
- Update Date: 06/06/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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