Diagnosis and Prognosis of Bladder Cancer
Tests Used to Assess Potential Bladder Cancer
Tests to Confirm Bladder Cancer
Staging and Prognosis of Bladder Cancer
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests including CT scan, MRI scan, or bone scan
- Surgical reports—if tumor is surgically removed the doctor will note how much of the bladder tissue was involved
- Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ—In this stage, abnormal cells are found only in the innermost lining of the bladder.
- Stage I—Cancer cells are identified in the bladder’s deeper tissues, but not in the bladder’s layer of muscle.
- Stage II—Cancer cells can be found in the bladder’s muscles.
- Stage III—Cancer cells have spread to the outermost layer of the bladder, and may have invaded the prostate in men or the cervix, uterus, or vagina in women.
- Stage IV—Cancer cells have spread to the tissue that lines the wall of the abdomen and/or pelvis. There may be cancer cells identified within lymph nodes and/or in distant locations, such as the liver, lungs, or bone.
|Stages of Bladder Cancer|
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Bladder cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003085-pdf.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2015.
Bladder cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 14, 2015. Accessed June 29, 2015.
Bladder cancer. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/genitourinary-cancer/bladder-cancer. Updated November 2013. Accessed June 29, 2015.
General information about bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq. Updated May 29, 2015. Accessed June 26, 2015.
Stages of bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/patient/bladder-treatment-pdq#section/%5F109. Updated May 29, 2015. Accessed June 29, 2015.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/29/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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