Antioxidants and Your Health
What Are Antioxidants?
Types of Antioxidants
|Antioxidant or Antioxidant-producing Nutrient||Food Sources|
|Beta-carotene and other carotenoids (eg, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin)||Yellow/orange/red or dark green fruits and vegetables|
|Vitamin C||Citrus fruit, strawberries, red chili peppers, sweet peppers, dark-green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and strawberries|
|Vitamin E||Polyunsaturated vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, and whole grains|
|Manganese||Whole grains, legumes, avocados, grape juice, chocolate, egg yolks, nuts, seeds, boysenberries, blueberries, pineapples, dark green vegetables|
|Selenium||Meat, chicken, seafood, milk, whole grains, nuts, and vegetables|
The Link to Cancer, Heart Disease, and Aging
What Does This Mean to You?
American Dietetic Association http://www.eatright.org
Canada's Food Guide http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index%5Fe.html/
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca/
Antioxidant food table. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/heart/prevention/nutrition/antioxidants.aspx. Accessed August 19, 2013.
Antioxidants. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website. Available at: http://www.eatright.org/public/content.aspx?id=6792. Accessed August 19, 2013.
Antioxidants and cancer prevention: fact sheet. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/prevention/antioxidants. Updated July 28, 2004. Accessed August 19, 2013.
Albanes D. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-tocopheral Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:1427S-1430S.
Brown BG, Crowley J. Is there any hope for vitamin E? JAMA. 2005;293:1387-1390.
Gill S, Sinicrope FA. Colorectal cancer prevention: is an ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure? Semin Oncol. 2005;32:24-34.
Greenberg ER. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma: Polyp Prevention Study Group. New Engl J Med. 1994;331:141-147.
Hennekens CH. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasm and cardiovascular disease. New Engl J Med. 1996;334:1145-1149.
Klein EA. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2005;54:1-10.
Manganese. Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/manganese/. Accessed August 19, 2013.
Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:37-46. Summary for patients in: Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:I40.
Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, et al. Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-year double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Nutr. 2003;19:21-24.
Peralta EA, Viegas ML, Louis S, Engle DL, Dunnington GL. Effect of vitamin E on tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cells. Surgery. 2006;140:607-614 [discussion 614-615]. [Epub ahead of print]
Prasad KN. Antioxidants in cancer care: when and how to use them as an adjunct to standard and experimental therapies [review]. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003;3:903-915.
Prasad KN, Cole WC, Kumar B, Che Prasad K. Pros and cons of antioxidant use during radiation therapy [review]. Cancer Treat Rev. 2002;28:79-91.
Simone CB II, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, part 1 [review]. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13:22-28.
Simone CB II, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, part 2 [review]. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13:40-47.
Special report: the trials of beta-carotene: is the verdict in? Tufts Diet and Nutrition Letter. March 1996.
Steinberg D. Clinical trials of antioxidants in atherosclerosis. Are we doing the right thing? The Lancet. 1995;346:36-38.
Waters DD, Alderman EL, Hsia J, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:2432-2440.
Zhang YH. Possible immunologic involvement of antioxidants in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:1477S-1482S.
3/16/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007;297:842-857.
2/14/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Showell M, Brown J, Yazdani A, Stankiewicz M, Hart R. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD007411.
6/7/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;3:CD007176.
2/24/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Kristal A, Darke A, et al. Baseline selenium status and effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation on prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. Available at: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/02/21/jnci.djt456.abstract?sid=b07c002f-580d-43be-b88d-7af6a06f5a10 Published February 22, 2014. Accessed February 24, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 02/24/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.