Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Adrenal Extracts
- Alternative Therapies ( Biofeedback , Guided Imagery , Hypnotherapy , Massage , Relaxation Therapy , Tai Chi , Yoga )
- Bach Flower Remedies
- Eleutherococcus senticosus
- Lysine Plus Arginine
- Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements
- Theanine from Black Tea
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Multivitamins Plus Minerals
Other Possible Adaptogens
1 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:271, 273.
2 Bittles AH, Fulder SJ, Grant EC, et al. The effect of ginseng on the lifespan and stress responses in mice. Gerontology. 1979;25:125-131.
3 Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from Ginseng and Eleutherococcus.Lloydia. 1969;32:46-51.
4 Dua PR, Shanker G, Srimal RC, et al. Adaptogenic activity of Indian Panax pseudoginseng.Indian J Exp Biol. 1989;27:631-634.
5 Grandhi A, Mujumdar AM, Patwardhan B. A comparative pharmacological investigation of Ashwagandha and Ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;44:131-135.
6 Hiai S, Yokoyama H, Oura H. Features of ginseng saponin induced corticosterone secretion. Endocrinol Jpn. 1979;26:737-740.
7 Ramachandran U, Divekar HM, Grover SK, et al. New experimental model for the evaluation of adaptogenic products. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:275-281.
8 Oura HS, Hiai S, Nabetani S, et al. Effect of ginseng extract on endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome. Planta Med. 1975;28:76-88.
9 Singh VK, Agarwal SS, Gupta BM. Immunomodulatory activity of Panax ginseng extract. Planta Med. 1984;50:462-465.
10 Singh YN. Effects of kava on neuromuscular transmission and muscle contractility. J Ethnopharmacol. 1983;7:267-276.
11 Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, et al. Efficacy and safety of the standardised ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22:65-72.
12 Scaglione F, Ferrara F, Dugnani S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1990;16:537-542.
13 Scaglione F, Cogo R, Cocuzza C, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (G115) on alveolar macrophages from patients suffering with chronic bronchitis. Int J Immunother. 1994;10:21-24.
14 Srisurapanon S, Rungroeng K, Apibal S, et al. The effect of standardized ginseng extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets: a preliminary study in young healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 1997;80(suppl 1):S81-S85.
15 Sorenson H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res. 1996;57:959-968.
16 D'Angelo L, Grimaldi R, Caravaggi M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of a standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15-22.
17 Hallstrom C, Fulder S, Carruthers M. Effects of ginseng on the performance of nurses on night duty. Comp Med East West. 1982;6:277-282.
18 Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, et al. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22:323-329.
19 Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:1373-1375.
20 Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones [translated from German]. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
21 Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:655-660.
22 Cherdrungsi P, Rungroeng K. Effects of standardized ginseng extract and exercise training on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in humans. Korean J Ginseng Sci. 1995;19:93-100.
23 Forgo I. Effect of drugs on physical exertion and the hormonal system of athlete [translated from German]. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1983;125:822-824.
24 McNaughton LG, Egan G, Caelli G. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int J Clin Nutr Rev. 1989;9:32-35.
25 Engles HJ, Wirth JC. No ergogenic effects of ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) during graded maximal aerobic exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:1110-1115.
26 Engels HJ, Said JM, Wirth JC, et al. Failure of chronic ginseng supplementation to affect work performance and energy metabolism in healthy adult females. Nutr Res. 1996;16:1295-1305.
27 Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, et al. No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:263-271.
28 Teves MA, Wright JE, Welch MJ, et. al. Effects of ginseng on repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15:162.
38 Schlebusch L, Bosch BA, Polglase G, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-centre study of the effects of an oral multivitamin-mineral combination on stress. S Afr Med J. 2000;90:1216-1223.
39 Carroll D, Ring C, Suter M, et al. The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;150:220-225.
40 Bohn B, Nebe CT, Birr C. Flow-cytometric studies with eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37:1193-1196.
41 Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Alt Complement Med. 1995;13:9-12.
42 Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:482-489.
44 Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:365-371.
45 Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:85-89.
46 Cropley M, Cave Z. Effect of kava and valerian on physiological responses to psychological stress assessed under laboratory conditions [abstract]. FACT. 2001;6:76.
47 Fahey TD, et al. Hormonal effects of phosphatidylserine during 2 weeks of intense training [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(5 suppl).
48 Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharm. 1992;41:385-388.
49 Fahey TD, Pearl MS. The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. Biol Sport. 1998;15:135-144.
50 Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, et al. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull. 1999;48:203-209.
51 Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Avit Space Environ Med. 1995;66:313-319.
52 Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 2001;70:431-442.
53 Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;159:319-324.
54 Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:375-379.
55 Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:444-451.
56 Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:95-105.
57 Dixit S, Agrawal U, Dubey G. Executive fatigue and its management with Mentat. Pharmacopsychoecologia. 1993;6:7-9.
58 Agrawal A, Dubey M, Dubey G. Effects of Mentat on memory span, attention, galvanic skin resistance (GSR) and muscle action potential (EMG) among normal adults. Pharmacopsychoecologia. 1990;3:39-42.
59 Bradbury J, Myers SP, Oliver C, et al. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot). Nutr J. 2004 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]
60 Hanley J, Stirling P, Brown C. Randomised controlled trial of therapeutic massage in the management of stress. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53:20-25.
61 Kraemer WJ, French DN, Spiering BA, et al. Cortitrol supplementation reduces serum cortisol responses to physical stress. Metabolism. 2005;54:657-68.
62 Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, et al. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress. 2004;7:119-126.
63 Kohnen R, Oswald WD. The effects of valerian, propranolol, and their combination on activation, performance and mood of healthy volunteers under social stress conditions. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1988;21:447-448.
64 Kennedy DO, Little W, Haskell CF, et al. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress. Phytother Res. 2006;20:96-102.
65 Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, et al. l-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2006 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print]
66 Kim JH, Desor D, Kim YT, et al. Efficacy of alpha-s1-casein hydrolysate on stress-related symptoms in women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:53641.
67 Smriga M, Ando T, Akutsu M, et al. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed Res. 2007;28:85-90.
68 Heiden M, Lyskov E, Nakata M, et al. Evaluation of cognitive behavioural training and physical activity for patients with stress-related illnesses: A randomized controlled study. J Rehabil Med. 2007;39:366-373.
69 Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, et al. Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure. Physiol Behav. 2007 May 22. [Epub ahead of print]
70 Halberstein R, DeSantis L, Sirkin A, et al. Healing with Bach® Flower Essences: testing a complementary therapy. Complement Health Pract Rev. 2007;12:3-14.
71 Walach H, Rilling C, Engelke U. Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover. J Anxiety Disord. 2001;15:359-366.
72 Armstrong NC, Ernst E. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Bach flower remedy. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2001;7:215-221.
73 Inoue K, Shirai T, Ochiai H, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:490-495.
74 Jager R, Purpura M, Geiss KR, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007 Dec 4.
75 Li AW, Goldsmith CA. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Altern Med Rev. 2012;17(1):21-35.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.