What Is Peppermint Used for Today?
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Peppermint?
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Other Forms of Spasm in the Digestive Tract
Dyspepsia (Minor Indigestion)
Interactions You Should Know About
- Cyclosporine : Do not use peppermint oil (or stop using it) except in consultation with your physician.
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6 Rees WD, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. Br Med J. 1979;2:835-836.
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8 Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:765-768.
9 Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, et al. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr. 2001;138:125-128.
10 Carling L, Svedberg LE, Hulten S, et al. Short-term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyaminme. Opusc Med. 1989;34:55-57.
11 Nash P, Gould SR, Barnardo DE. Peppermint oil does not relieve the pain of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Clin Pract. 1986;40:292-293.
12 Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, et al. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1988;3:235-238.
13 Carling L, Svedberg LE, Hulten S. Short-term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyaminme. Opusc Med. 1989;34:55-57.
14 Sparks MJ, O'Sullivan P, Herrington AA, et al. Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema? Br J Radiol. 1995;68:841-843.
15 May B, Kuntz H-D, Kieser M, et al. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46:1149-1153.
16 Madisch A, Heydenreich CJ, Wieland V, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination preparation as compared to cisapride. A multicenter, reference-controlled double-blind equivalence study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49:925-932.
17 Westphal J, Horning M, Leonhardt K. Phytotherapy in functional upper abdominal complaints. Results of a clinical study with a preparation of several plants. Phytomedicine. 1996;2:285-291.
18 Spindler P, Madsen C. Subchronic toxicity study of peppermint oil in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1992;62:215-220.
19 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP; 1996-1997:1-6. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
20 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP, 1996-1997:5. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
21 European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP, 1996-1997:1-6. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
22 Morice AH, Marshall AE, Higgins KS, Grattan TJ. Effect of inhaled menthol on citric acid induced cough in normal subjects. Thorax. 1994;49:1024-1026.
23 Gobel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, et al. Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type. Nervenarzt. 1996;67:672-681.
24 Gobel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters. Cephalalgia. 1994;14:228-234.
25 Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1131-1135.
26 Wacher VJ, Wong S, Wong HT. Peppermint oil enhances cyclosporine oral bioavailability in rats: comparison with D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS) and ketoconazole. J Pharm Sci. 2002;91:77-90.
27 Hiki N, Kurosaka H, Tatsutomi Y, et al. Peppermint oil reduces gastric spasm during upper endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:475-482.
28 Fazel N. The effect of supermint oil on pain severity after caesarean section. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(suppl):S126.
29 Asao T, Kuwano H, Ide M, et al. Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan. Clin Radiol. 2003;58:301-305.
30 Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Kocak A, et al. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats. Urology. 2004;64:394-398.
31 Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:601-606.
32 Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]
33 Sayyah Melli M, Rashidi MR, Delazar A, et al. Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial. Int Breastfeed J. 2007 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
34 Inamori M, Akiyama T, Akimoto K, et al. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time (13)C breath test (BreathID system). J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:539-542.
35 Ford AC, Talley NJ, Spiegel BM, et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337:a2313.
36 Merat S, Khalili S, Mostajabi P, Ghorbani A, Ansari R, Malekzadeh R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(5):1385-1390.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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