Principal Proposed Uses
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Glycine?
Interactions You Should Know About
- Clozapine : Do not take glycine except on the advice of a physician.
1 Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1999;56:29-36.
2 Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry . 1996;169:610-617.
3 Javitt DC, Balla A, Sershen H, et al. A.E. Bennett Research Award. Reversal of phencyclidine-induced effects by glycine and glycine transport inhibitors. Biol Psychiatry . 1999;45:668-679.
4 Javitt DC, Zylberman I, Zukin SR, et al. Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine. Am J Psychiatry . 1994;151:1234-1236.
5 Semba J. Glycine therapy of schizophrenia; its rationale and a review of clinical trials [translated from Japanese]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi . 1998;18:71-80.
6 Potkin SG, Jin Y, Bunney BG, et al. Effect of clozapine and adjunctive high-dose glycine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry . 1999;156:145-147.
7 Gusev EI, Skvortsova VI, Dambinova SA, et al. Neuroprotective effects of glycine for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis . 2000;10:49-60.
8 Fries MH, Rinaldo P, Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, et al. Isovaleric acidemia: response to a leucine load after three weeks of supplementation with glycine, L-carnitine, and combined glycine-carnitine therapy. J Pediatr . 1996;129:449-452.
9 Itoh T, Ito T, Ohba S, et al. Effect of carnitine administration on glycine metabolism in patients with isovaleric acidemia: significance of acetylcarnitine determination to estimate the proper carnitine dose. Tohoku JExp Med . 1996;179:101-109.
10 de Koning TJ, Duran M, Dorland L, et al. Beneficial effects of L-serine and glycine in the management of seizures in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann Neurol . 1998;44:261-265.
11 File SE, Fluck E, Fernandes C. Beneficial effects of glycine (Bioglycin) on memory and attention in young and middle-aged adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol . 1999;19:506-512.
12 Sopala M, Schweizer S, Schafer N, et al. Neuroprotective activity of a nanoparticulate formulation of the glycineB site antagonist MRZ 2/576 in transient focal ischaemia in rats. Arzneimittelforschung . 2002;52:168-74.
13 Harvey SG, Gibson JR, Burke CA. L-cysteine, glycine and dl-threonine in the treatment of hypostatic leg ulceration: a placebo-controlled study. Pharmatherapeutica . 1985;4:227-230.
14 Yin M, Ikejima K, Arteel GE, et al. Glycine accelerates recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther . 1998;286:1014-1019.
15 Thurman RG, Zhong Z, von Frankenberg M, et al. Prevention of cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity with dietary glycine. Transplantation . 1997;63:1661-1667.
16 Zhong Z, Arteel GE, Connor HD, et al. Cyclosporin A increases hypoxia and free radical production in rat kidneys: prevention by dietary glycine. Am J Physiol . 1998;275:F595-RF604.
17 Rose ML, Cattley RC, Dunn C, et al. Dietary glycine prevents the development of liver tumors caused by the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643. Carcinogenesis . 1999;20:2075-2081.
18 Rose ML, Madren J, Bunzendahl H, et al. Dietary glycine inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis . 1999;20:793-798.
19 Heresco-Levy U, Javitt DC, Ermilov M, et al. Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1999;56:29-36.
20 Tatlisumak T, Takano K, Meiler MR, Fisher M. A glycine site antagonist ZD9379 reduces number of spreading depressions and infarct size in rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Acta Neurochir Suppl . 2000;76:331-333.
21 Javitt DC. Management of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rep . 2001;3:413-417.
22 Evins AE, Fitzgerald SM, Wine L, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of glycine added to clozapine in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry . 2000;157:826-828.
23 Heresco-Levy U, Ermilov M, Lichtenberg P, et al. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:165-71.
24 Martinez-Abundis E, Kam-Ramos AM, Hernandez-Salazar E, Gonzalez-Ortiz. Effect of glycine on insulin secretion, fasting and postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 18th International Diabetes Federation Congress, Paris, August 24-29, 2003;abstract 758.
25 Diaz P, Bhaskara S, Dursun SM, et al. Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Clozapine Plus Glycine in Refractory Schizophrenia Negative Results. J Clin Psychopharmacol . 2005;25:277-278.
26 . Buchanan RW, Javitt DC, Marder SR, et al. The cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia trial (CONSIST): the efficacy of glutamatergic agents for negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1593-1602.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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