Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:75-77, 81.
2 Hendriks H, Bos R, Woerdenbag HJ, et al. Central nervous depressant activity of valerenic acid in the mouse. Planta Med. 1985:28-31.
3 Krieglstein J, Grusla D. Centrally depressant components of valerian. However, valepotriates, valerenic acid, valeranone and the essential oil are ineffective [in German]. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1988;128:2041-2046.
4 Leuschner J, Muller J, Rudmann M. Characterisation of the central nervous depressant activity of a commercially available valerian root extract. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43:638-641.
5 Vorbach EU, Gortelmeyer R, Bruning J. Therapy for insomniacs: effectiveness and tolerance of valerian preparations [translated from German]. Psychopharmakotherapie. 1996;3:109-115.
6 Leathwood PD, Chauffard F, Heck E, et al. Aqueous extract of valerian root ( Valeriana officinalisL. ) improves sleep quality in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982;17:65-71.
7 Kamm-Kohl AV, Jansen W, Brockmann P. Modern valerian therapy for nervous disorders in old age [translated from German]. Med Welt. 1984;35:1450-1454.
8 Dorn M. Efficacy and tolerability of Baldrian versus oxazepam in non-organic and non-psychiatric insomniacs: a randomised, double-blind, clinical, comparative study [translated from German]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2000;7:79-84.
9 Cerny A, Schmid K. Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers (a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study). Fitoterapia. 1999;70:221-228.
10 Dressing H, Riemann D, Low H, et al. Insomnia: are valerian/balm combinations of equal value to benzodiazepines [translated from German]? Therapiewoche. 1992;42:726-736.
11 Schmitz M, Jackel M. Comparative study for assessing quality of life of patients with exogenous sleep disorders (temporary sleep onset and sleep interruption disorders) treated with a hops-valerian preparation and a benzodiazepine drug [translated from German]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1998;148:291-298.
12 Andreatini R, Leite JR. Effect of valepotriates on the behavior of rats in the elevated plus-maze during diazepam withdrawal. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994;260:233-235.
13 Holzl J, Godau P. Receptor bindings studies with Valeriana officinalis on the benzodiazepine receptor. Planta Med. 1989;55:642.
14 Mennini T, Bernasconi P, Bombardelli E, et al. In vitro study on the interaction of extracts and pure compounds from Valeriana officinalis roots with GABA, benzodiazepine and barbiturate receptors in rat brain. Fitoterapia. 1993;54:291-300.
15 Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, et al. Synaptosomal GABA release as influenced by valerian root extract—involvement of the GABA carrier. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1994;327:220-231.
16 Santos MS, Ferreira F, Cunha AP, et al. An aqueous extract of valerian influences the transport of GABA in synaptosomes. Planta Med. 1994;60:278-279.
17 Cavadas C, Araujo I, Cotrim MD, et al. In vitro study on the interaction of Valeriana officinalis L. extracts and their amino acids on GABA A receptor in rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:753-755.
18 Santos MS, Ferreira F, Faro C, et al. The amount of GABA present in aqueous extracts of valerian is sufficient to account for [ 3H ] GABA release in synaptosomes. Planta Med. 1994;60:475-476.
19 Lamberg L. Melatonin potentially useful but safety, efficacy remain uncertain. JAMA. 1996;276:1011-1014.
20 Claustrat B, Brun J, David M, et al. Melatonin and jet lag: confirmatory result using a simplified protocol. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32:705-711.
21 Petrie K, Dawson AG, Thompson L, et al. A double-blind trial of melatonin as a treatment for jet lag in international cabin crew. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:526-530.
22 Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R, et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15:655-666.
23 Arendt J, Skene DJ, Middleton B, et al. Efficacy of melatonin in jet lag, shift work and blindness. J Biol Rhythms. 1997;12:604-617.
24 Chase JE, Gidal BE. Melatonin: therapeutic use in sleep disorders. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31:1218-1226.
25 Spitzer RL, Terman M, Williams JB, et al. Jet lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response to melatonin in a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1392-1396.
26 Edwards BJ, Atkinson G, Waterhouse J, et al. Use of melatonin in recovery from jet-lag following an eastward flight across 10 time-zones. Ergonomics. 2000;43:1501-1513.
27 Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R, et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15:655-666.
28 Arendt J, Skene DJ, Middleton B, et al. Efficacy of melatonin treatment in jet lag, shift work, and blindness. J Biol Rhythms. 1997;12:604-617.
29 Spitzer RL, Terman M, Williams JB, et al. Jet lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response to melatonin in a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1392-1396.
30 Edwards BJ, Atkinson G, Waterhouse J, et al. Use of melatonin in recovery from jet-lag following an eastward flight across 10 time-zones. Ergonomics. 2000;43:1501-1513.
31 Attenburrow ME, Cowen PJ, Sharpley AL. Low dose melatonin improves sleep in healthy middle-aged subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996;126:179-181.
32 Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Nof D, et al. Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet. 1995; 346:541-544.
33 Petrie K, Dawson AG, Thompson L, et al. A double-blind trial of melatonin as a treatment for jet lag in international cabin crew. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:526-530.
34 Chase JE, Gidal BE. Melatonin: therapeutic use in sleep disorders. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31:1218-1226.
35 Haimov I, Lavie P, Laudon M, et al. Melatonin replacement therapy of elderly insomniacs. Sleep. 1995;18:598-603.
36 Wurtman RJ, Zhdanova I. Improvement of sleep quality by melatonin [letter]. Lancet. 1995;346:1491.
37 Hughes RJ, Sack RL, Lewy AJ. The role of melatonin and circadian phase in age-related sleep-maintenance insomnia: assessment in a clinical trial of melatonin replacement. Sleep. 1998;21:52-68.
38 Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Improvement of sleep quality by controlled-release melatonin in benzodiazepine-treated elderly insomniacs. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1997;24:223-231.
39 Folkard S, Arendt J, Clark M. Can melatonin improve shift workers' tolerance of the night shift? Some preliminary findings. Chronobiol Int. 1993;10:315-320.
40 Dawson D, Encel N, Lushington K. Improving adaptation to simulated night shift: timed exposure to bright light versus daytime melatonin administration. Sleep. 1995;18:11-21.
41 MacFarlane JG, Cleghorn JM, Brown GM, et al. The effects of exogenous melatonin on the total sleep time and daytime alertness of chronic insomniacs: a preliminary study. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30:371-376.
42 James SP, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE, et al. Melatonin administration in insomnia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1990;3:19-23.
43 Smits MG, Nagtegaal EE, van der Heijden J, et al. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Child Neurol. 2001;16:86-92.
44 Yang CM, Spielman AJ, D'Ambrosio P, et al. A single dose of melatonin prevents the phase delay associated with a delayed weekend sleep pattern. Sleep. 2001;24:272-281.
45 Shilo L, Dagan Y, Smorjik Y, et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep quality of COPD intensive care patients: a pilot study. Chronobiol Int. 2000;17:71-76.
46 Garfinkel D, Wainstein J, Halabe A, et al. Beneficial effect of controlled release melatonin on sleep quality and hemoglobin A1C in type 2 diabetic patients. Presented at: World Congress of Gerontology; July 1-6, 2001; Vancouver, Canada.
47 Shamir E, Laudon M, Barak Y, et al. Melatonin improves sleep quality of patients with chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61:373-377.
48 Sack RL, Brandes RW, Kendall AR, et al. Entrainment of free-running circadian rhythms by melatonin in blind people. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1070-1077.
49 Kayumov L, Brown G, Jindal R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of exogenous melatonin on delayed sleep phase syndrome. Psychosom Med. 2001;63:40-48.
50 Garfinkel D, Zisapel N, Wainstein J, et al. Facilitation of benzodiazepine discontinuation by melatonin: a new clinical approach. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2456-2460.
51 Chen ML, Lin LC, Wu SC, et al. The effectiveness of acupressure in improving the quality of sleep of institutionalized residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999;54:M389-M394.
52 Schulz H, Jobert M. The influence of hypericum extract on the sleep EEG in older volunteers [in German; English abstract]. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:323-327.
53 Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, Regan MM, et al. Melatonin treatment for age-related insomnia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:4727-4730.
54 Smits MG, Van Stel HF, Van Der Heijden K, et al. Melatonin improves health status and sleep in children with idiopathic chronic sleep-onset insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42:1286-1293
55 Sharkey KM, Fogg LF, Eastman CI. Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work. J Sleep Res. 2001;10:181-192.
56 James M, Tremea MO, Jones JS, et al. Can melatonin improve adaptation to night shift?. Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16:367-370.
57 Paul MA, Brown G, Buguet A, et al. Melatonin and zopiclone as pharmacologic aids to facilitate crew rest. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72:974-984.
58 Poyares DR, Guilleminault C, Ohayon MM, Tufik S. Can valerian improve the sleep of insomniacs after benzodiazepine withdrawal? Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:539-545.
59 Herxheimer A, Petrie KJ. Melatonin for preventing and treating jet lag. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD001520.
60 Baskett JJ, Broad JB, Wood PC, et al. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age Ageing. 2003;32:164-170.
61 Montakab H. Acupuncture and insomnia. Forsch Komplementarmed. 1999;6(suppl):29-31.
62 Tsay SL, Chen ML. Acupressure and quality of sleep in patients with end-stage renal disease—a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2003;40:1-7.
63 Morin CM, Hauri PJ, Espie CA, et al. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. Sleep. 1999;22:1134-1156.
64 Espie CA, Lindsay WR, Brooks DN, et al. A controlled comparative investigation of psychological treatments for chronic sleep-onset insomnia. Behav Res Ther. 1989;27:79-88.
65 Freedman R, Papsdorf JD. Biofeedback and progressive relaxation treatment of sleep-onset insomnia: a controlled, all-night investigation. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976;1:253-271.
66 Lindahl O, Lindwall L. Double blind study of a valerian preparation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989;32:1065-1066.
67 Schulz H, Stolz C, Muller J. The effect of valerian extract on sleep polygraphy in poor sleepers: a pilot study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1994;27:147-151.
68 Donath F, Quispe S, Diefenbach K. Critical evaluation of the effect of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000;33:47-53.
69 Coxeter PD, Schluter PJ, Eastwood HL, et al. Valerian does not appear to reduce symptoms for patients with chronic insomnia in general practice using a series of randomised n-of-1 trials. Complement Ther Med. 2003;11:215-22.
70 Diaper A, Hindmarch I. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of two doses of a valerian preparation on the sleep, cognitive and psychomotor function of sleep-disturbed older adults. Phytother Res. 2004 Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print].
71 Ziegler G, Ploch M, Miettinen-Baumann A, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of valerian extract LI 156 compared with oxazepam in the treatment of non-organic insomnia—a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study. Eur J Med Res. 2003;7:480-486.
72 Baskett JJ, Broad JB, Wood PC, et al. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age Ageing. 2003;32:164-170.
73 Farag NH, Mills PJ. A randomised-controlled trial of the effects of a traditional herbal supplement on sleep onset insomnia. Complement Ther Med. 2003;11:223-225.
74 Lehrl S. Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS((R)) 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Affect Disord. 2004;78:101-110.
75 Held K, Antonijevic IA, Kunzel H, et al. Oral MG(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35:135-143.
76 Jacobs BP, Bent S, Tice JA, et al. An internet-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial of kava and valerian for anxiety and insomnia. Medicine. 2005;84:197-207.
77 Jacobs BP, Bent S, Tice JA, et al. An internet-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial of kava and valerian for anxiety and insomnia. Medicine. 2005;84:197-207.
78 Smith MR, Lee C, Crowley SJ, et al. Morning melatonin has limited benefit as a soporific for daytime sleep after night work. Chronobiol Int. 2005;22:873-88.
79 Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, et al. The efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for primary sleep disorders. A meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;20:1151-1158.
80 Jacobs BP, Bent S, Tice JA, et al. An internet-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial of kava and valerian for anxiety and insomnia. Medicine. 2005;84:197-207.
81 Lewith GT, Godfrey AD, Prescott P, et al. A Single-Blinded, Randomized Pilot Study Evaluating the Aroma of Lavandula augustifolia as a Treatment for Mild Insomnia. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:631-637.
82 Morin CM, Koetter U, Bastien C, et al. Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sleep. 2005;28:1465-1471.
83 Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, et al. Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006;119:1005-1012.
84 Koetter U, Schrader E, Kaufeler R, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical study to demonstrate clinical efficacy of a fixed valerian hops extract combination (Ze 91019) in patients suffering from non-organic sleep disorder. Phytother Res. 2007 May 8. [Epub ahead of print]
85 Taibi DM, Landis CA, Petry H, et al. A systematic review of valerian as a sleep aid: Safe but not effective. Sleep Med Rev. 2007;11:209-230.
86 Inoue K, Shirai T, Ochiai H, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:490-495.
87 Yamamura S, Morishima H, Kumano-Go T, et al. The effect of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk on sleep and health perception in elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]
88 Oxman AD, Flottorp S, Havelsrud K, et al. A televised, web-based randomised trial of an herbal remedy (valerian) for insomnia. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1040.
89 Sjoling M, Rolleri M, Englund E. Auricular acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in the treatment of women who have insomnia. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:39-46.
90 Taibi DM, Vitiello MV, Barsness S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of valerian fails to improve self-reported, polysomnographic, and actigraphic sleep in older women with insomnia. Sleep Med. 2008 May 13.
91 Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Motivala SJ. Improving sleep quality in older adults with moderate sleep complaints: A randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi Chih. Sleep. 2008;31:1001-1008.
92 Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, et al. Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Aug 25.
93 Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Aminian O, Pouryaghoub G, et al. Efficacy and hypnotic effects of melatonin in shift-work nurses: double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Circadian Rhythms. 2008;6:10.
94 Yeung WF, Chung KF, Zhang SP, et al. Electroacupuncture for primary insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. 2009;32:1039-47.
95 Sun JL, Sung MS, Huang MY, Cheng GC, Lin CC. Effectiveness of acupressure for residents of long-term care facilities with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(7):798-805.
96 Fernández-San-Martín MI, Masa-Font R, Palacios-Soler L, Sancho-Gómez P, Calbó-Caldentey C, Flores-Mateo G. Effectiveness of Valerian on insomnia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Sleep Med. 2010;11(6):505-511.
97 Cheuk DK, Yeung WF, Chung KF. Acupuncture for insomnia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012;9:CD005472.
98 Black DS, O'Reilly GA, Olmstead R, Breen EC, Irwin, MR. Mindfulness meditation and improvement in sleep quality and daytime impairment among older adults with sleep disturbances: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):494-501.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 05/04/2015 -
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