- Prevention and Possibly Treatment: Bladder Infections
What Is Cranberry Used for Today?
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Cranberry?
Interactions You Should Know About
- Warfarin (Coumadin) : Use of cranberry might lead to excessive bleeding.
- Weakly alkaline drugs (including many antidepressants and prescription painkillers): Cranberry might decrease their effectiveness.
1 Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections. J Urol. 1984;131:1013-1016.
2 Schmidt DR, Sobota AE. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55:173-181.
3 Zafriri D, Ofek I, Adar R, et al. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:92-98.
4 Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, et al. Anti- Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1599.
5 Howell AB, Vorsa N, Der Marderosian A, et al. Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from cranberries [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1085-1086.
6 Habash MB, Van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, et al. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber [abstract]. Can J Microbiol. 1999;45:691-694.
7 Schaeffer AJ. Recurrent urinary tract infection in the female patient. Urology. 1988;32(suppl 3):12-15.
8 Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, et al. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent. JADA. 1998;129:1719-1723.
9 Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol. 2002;9:1558-1562.
10 Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, et al. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA. 1994;271:751-754.
11 Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, et al. Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. J Pediatr. 1999;135:698-702.
12 Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001;322:1-5.
13 Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, et al. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent. JADA. 1998;129:1719-1723.
14 Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR. Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis. Urology. 2001;57:26-29.
15 Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;29:295-301.
16 Wilson T, Porcari JP, Harbin D Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation. Life Sciences. 1998;62:PL381-386.
17 Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Medica. 1996;62:212-216.
18 Najla Guthrie. Effect of cranberry juice and products on human breast cancer cell growth. Presented at Experimental Biology; April 18-21, 2000; San Diego, CA.
19 Weiss EI, Kozlovsky A, Steinberg D, et al. A high molecular mass cranberry constituent reduces mutans streptococci level in saliva and inhibits in vitro adhesion to hydroxyapatite. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;232:89-92.
20 Chambers BK, Camire ME. Can cranberry supplementation benefit adults with type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2695-2696.
21 Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, et al. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27:35-40.
22 Committee on Safety of Medicines. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Current Problems in Pharmacovigilance. 2003;29:8.
23 Di Martino P, Agniel R, David K, et al. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. World J Urol. 2006 Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print]
24 Zhang L, Ma J, Pan K, et al. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005;10:139-45.
25 Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, et al. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Jul 20. [Epub ahead of print].
26 Crews WD, Harrison DW, Griffin ML, et al. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:305-309.
27 McMurdo ME, Bissett LY, Price RJ, et al. Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Age Ageing. 2005;34:256-261.
28 Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, et al. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. SCI Nurs. 2005;22:20-25
29 Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: In vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79:125-133.
30 Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, et al. Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:2057-2061.
31 Pham DQ, Pham AQ. Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:490-494.
32 Welch JM, Forster K. Probable elevation in international normalized ratio from cranberry juice. J Pharm Technol. 2007;23:104-107.
33 Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, et al. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]
34 Jepson R, Craig J. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD001321.
35 Gotteland M, Andrews M, Toledo M, et al. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition. 2008 Mar 14.
36 Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, et al. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008 Apr 8.
37 Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun 2.
38 Wang CH, Fang CC, Chen NC, et al. Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2012 ;172(13):988-996.
39 Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig, JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012;CD001321.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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