Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Probably Ineffective Treatments
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Vitamin B 6
Other Proposed Treatments for PMS
1 Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1998;179:444-452.
2 Alvir JM, Thys-Jacobs S. Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull . 1991;27:145-148.
3 Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Intern Med . 1989;4:183-189.
4 Milewicz A, Gejdel E, Sworen H, et al. Vitex agnus-castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study [translated from German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993;43:752-756.
5 Jarry H, Leonhardt S, Gorkow C, et al. In vitro prolactin but not LH and FSH release is inhibited by compounds in extracts of Agnus castus : direct evidence for a dopaminergic principle by the dopamine receptor assay. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1994;102:448-454.
6 Sliutz G, Speiser P, Schultz AM, et al. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Horm Metab Res . 1993;25:253-255.
7 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine . 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:241-242.
8 Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ . 2001;322:134-137.
9 Lauritzen C, Reuter HD, Repges R, et al. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus . Controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine . 1997;4:183-189.
10 Kleijnen J, Ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1990;97:847-852.
11 Dittmar FW, Bohnert KJ, Peeters M, et al. Premenstrual syndrome: treatment with a phytopharmaceutical [translated from German]. Therapie Woche Gynakol . 1992;5:60-68.
12 Peters-Welte C, Albrecht M. Menstrual abnormalities and PMS: Vitex agnus castus [translated from German]. Therapie Woche Gynakol . 1994;7:49-52.
16 Diegoli MSC, da Fonseca AM, Diegoli CA, et al. A double-blind trial of four medications to treat severe premenstrual syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1998;62:63-67.
17 Kleijnen J, Ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome—a review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1990;97:847-852.
18 Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ . 1999;318:1375-1381.
19 De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:131-139.
20 Tamborini A, Taurelle R. Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome [translated from French]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet . 1993;88:447-457.
21 Facchinetti F, Bolrella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol . 1991;78:177-181.
22 Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health . 1998;7:1157-1165.
23 Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache . 1991;31:298-301.
24 De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:131-139.
25 London RS, Murphy L, Kitlowski KE, et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med . 1987;32:400-404.
26 London RS, Bradley L, Chiamori NY. Effect of a nutritional supplement on premenstrual symptomatology in women with premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind longitudinal study. J Am Coll Nutr . 1991;10:494-499.
27 Reynolds MA, London RS. Efficacy of a multivitamin/mineral supplement in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome [abstract]. J Am Coll Nutr . 1988;7:416.
28 Stewart A. Clinical and biochemical effects of nutritional supplementation on the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med . 1987;32:435-441.
29 Chakmakjian ZH, Higgins CE, Abraham GE. The effect of a nutritional supplement, Optivite® for women, on premenstrual tension syndromes: II. Effect on symptomatology, using a double-blind, cross-over design. J Appl Nutr . 1985;37:12-17.
30 Puolakka J, Makarainen L, Viinikka L, et al. Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrome with prostaglandin synthesis precursors. J Reprod Med . 1985;30:149-153.
31 Dittmar FW, Bohnert KJ, Peeters M, et al. Premenstrual syndrome: treatment with a phytopharmaceutical [translated from German]. Therapie Woche Gynakol . 1992;5:60-68.
32 Stevinson C, Ernst E. A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. BJOG. 2000;107:870-876.
33 London RS, Sundaram GS, Murphy L, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double-blind study. J Am Coll Nutr . 1983;2:115-122.
34 Winther K, Hedman C. Assessment of the effects of the herbal remedy Femal on the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp . 2002;63:344-353.
35 Burke BE, Olson RD, Cusack BJ. Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in the prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine. Biomed Pharmacother . 2002;56:283-288.
36 Hernandez-Reif M, Martinez A, Field T, et al. Premenstrual symptoms are relieved by massage therapy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol . 2000;21:9-15.
37 Oleson T, Flocco W. Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and foot reflexology. Obstet Gynecol . 1993;82:906-911.
38 Walsh MJ, Polus BI. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of chiropractic therapy on premenstrual syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther . 1999;22:582-585.
39 Nemets B, Talesnick B, Belmaker RH, et al. Myo-inositol has no beneficial effect on premenstrual dysphoric disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry . 2002;3:147-149.
40 Christie S, Walker AF, Hicks SM, et al. Flavonoid supplement improves leg health and reduces fluid retention in pre-menopausal women in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine . 2004;11:11-7.
41 Sampalis F, Bunea R, Pelland MF, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev . 2003;8:171-179.
42 Bryant M, Cassidy A, Hill C, et al. Effect of consumption of soy isoflavones on behavioural, somatic and affective symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome. Br J Nutr . 2005;93:731-739.
43 Ozgoli G, Selselei EA, Mojab F, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:845-51.
44 Cho SH, Kim J. Efficacy of acupuncture in management of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Complement Ther Med. 2010 Apr;18(2):104.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.