- 0-6 months: 125 mg
- 7-12 months: 150 mg
- 1-3 years: 200 mg
- 4-8 years: 250 mg
- 9-13 years: 375 mg
- 14 years and older: 550 mg
- 14-18 years: 400 mg
- 19 years and older: 425 mg
- Pregnant Women : 450 mg
- Nursing Women : 550 mg
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Choline?
1 Zeisel SH. Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr . 1992;11:473-481.
2 Zeisel SH, Da Costa KA, Franklin PD, et al. Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. FASEB J . 1991;5:2093-2098.
3 Jacob RA, Jenden DJ, Allman-Farinelli MA, et al. Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr . 1999;129:712-717.
4 [No authors listed]. Choline: a conditionally essential nutrient for humans. Nutr Rev . 1992;50:112-114.
5 De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther . 2003;25:178-193.
6 Davalos A, Castillo J, Alvarez-Sabin J, Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: an individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trials. Stroke. 2002;33:2850-2857.
7 Cohen BM, Lipinski JF, Altesman RI, et al. Lecithin in the treatment of mania: double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139:1162-1164.
8 Gelenberg AJ, Dorer DJ, Wojcik JD, et al. A crossover study of lecithin treatment of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51:149-153.
9 Domino EF, May WW, Demetriou S, et al. Lack of clinically significant improvement of patients with tardive dyskinesia following phosphatidylcholine therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 1985;20:1189-1196.
10 Oosthuizen W, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, et al. Lecithin has no effect on serum lipoprotein, plasma fibrinogen and macro molecular protein complex levels in hyperlipidaemic men in a double-blind controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr . 1998;52:419-424.
11 Bogden JD, Kemp FW, Han S, et al. Status of selected nutrients and progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:809-815.
12 Misra S, Ahn C, Ament ME, et al. Plasma choline concentration in children requiring long-term home parenteral nutrition: a case control study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999;23:305-308.
13 Buchman AL, Dubin M, Jenden D, et al. Lecithin increases plasma free choline and decreases hepatic steatosis in long-term total parenteral nutrition patients. Gastroenterology. 1992;102:1363-1370.
14 Tayek JA, Bistrian B, Sheard NF, et al. Abnormal liver function in malnourished patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a prospective randomized study. J Am Coll Nutr. 1990;9:76-83.
15 Burt ME, Hanin I, Brennan MF, et al. Choline deficiency associated with total parenteral nutrition. Lancet . 1980;2:638-639.
16 Niederau C, Strohmeyer G, Heintges T, et al. Polyunsaturated phosphatidyl-choline and interferon alpha for treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Leich Study Group. Hepatogastroenterology. 1998;45:797-804.
17 Guan R, Ho KY, Kang JY, et al. The effect of polyunsaturated phosphatidyl choline in the treatment of acute viral hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995;9:699-703.
18 Chawla RK, Wolf DC, Kutner MH, et al. Choline may be an essential nutrient in malnourished patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1989;97:1514-1520.
19 Newberne PM. Lipotropic factors and oncogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol . 1986;206:223-251.
20 Wainfan E, Poirier LA. Methyl groups in carcinogenesis: effects on DNA methylation and gene expression. Cancer Res. 1992;52:S2071-S2077.
21 Rogers AE. Methyl donors in the diet and responses to chemical carcinogens. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:S659-S665.
22 Alvarez XA, Mouzo R, Pichel V, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer's disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999;21:633-644.
23 Franco-Maside A, Caamano J, Gomez MJ, et al. Brain mapping activity and mental performance after chronic treatment with CDP-choline in Alzheimer's disease. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1994;16:597-607.
24 Cacabelos R, Alvarez XA, Franco-Maside A, et al. Effect of CDP-choline on cognition and immune function in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1993;695:321-323.
25 de la Morena E. Efficacy of CDP-choline in the treatment of senile alterations in memory. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991;640:233-236.
26 Heyman A, Schmechel D, Wilkinson W, et al. Failure of long term high-dose lecithin to retard progression of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1987;24:279-286.
27 Weintraub S, Mesulan MM, Auty R, et al. Lecithin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1983;40:527-528.
28 Etienne P, Dastoor D, Gauthier S, et al. Alzheimer disease: lack of effect of lecithin treatment for 3 months. Neurology. 1981;31:1552-1554.
29 Stoll AL, Sachs GS, Cohen BM, et al. Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40:382-388.
30 Olthof MR, Brink EJ, Katan MB, et al. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:111-7.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
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