Principal Proposed Uses
1 Stoll W. Phytotherapeutic agent affects atrophic vaginal epithelium. Double-blind study: Cimicifuga vs. an estrogen preparation [translated from German]. Therapeutikon. 1987;1:23-31.
2 Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-Von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh ( Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma ): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002;11:163-174.
3 Einer-Jensen N, Zhao J, Andersen KP, et al. Cimicifuga and Melbosia lack oestrogenic effects in mice and rats. Maturitas. 1996;25:149-153.
4 Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Evans J, et al. Randomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:2739-2745.
5 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:246.
6 Warnecke G. Influencing menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent [in German]. Med Welt. 1985;36:871-874.
7 Stolze H. An alternative to treat menopausal complaints [translated from German]. Gyne. 1982;1:14-16.
8 Lehmann-Willenbrock E, Riedel HH. Clinical and endocrinologic studies of the treatment of ovarian insufficiency manifestations following hysterectomy with intact adnexa [in German; English abstract]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1988;110:611-618.
9 Liske E. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for gynecologic disorders. Adv Ther. 1998;15:45-53.
10 MacLennan A, Lester S, Moore V. Oral estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric. 2001;4:58-74.
11 Seidlova-Wuttke D, Wuttke W. Selective estrogen receptor modulator activity of Cimicifuga racemosa extract: clinical data [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):11.
12 Seidlova-Wuttke D, Jarry H, Heiden I, et al. Effects of Cimicifuga racemosa on estrogen-dependent tissues [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):11-12.
13 Wuttke W, Jarry H, Heiden I, et al. Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract BNO 1055: pharmacology and mechanisms of action [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):12.
14 Jones TK, Lawson BM. Profound neonatal congestive heart failure caused by maternal consumption of blue cohosh herbal medication. J Pediatr. 1998;132:550-552.
15 Korn WD. Six-month Oral Toxicity Study with Remifemin-granulate in Rats Followed by an 8-week Recovery Period. Hannover, Germany: International Bio-research; 1991.
16 Nesselhut T, Schellhase C, Dietrich R, et al. Investigation into the growth-inhibitive efficacy of phytopharmacopia with estrogen-like influences on mammary gland carcinoma cells [translated from German]. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1993;254:817-818.
17 Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:369-378.
18 Freudenstein J, Dasenbrock C, Nisslein T. Lack of promotion of estrogen dependent mammary gland tumors in vivo by an isopropanolic black cohosh extract [abstract]. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(suppl 2):13.
19 Newall C, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London, England: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:80.
20 Genazzani E, Sorrentino L. Vascular action of acteina: active constituent of Actaea racemosa L.Nature. 1962;194:544-545.
21 Einer-Jensen N, Zhao J, Andersen KP, et al. Cimicifuga and Melbosia lack oestrogenic effects in mice and rats. Maturitas. 1996;25:149-153.
22 Nesselhut T, Liske E. Pharmacological measures in postmenopausal women with an isopropanolic aqueous extract of Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma.Menopause. 1999;6:1072-3714.
23 Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:369-378.
24 Jarry H, Harnischfeger G. Endocrine effects of constituents of Cimicifuga racemosa. The effect on serum levels of pituitary hormones in ovariectomized rats. Planta Med. 1985;1:46-49.
25 Wuttke W, Seidlova-Wuttke D, Gorkow C. The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers. Maturitas. 2003;44(suppl 1):S67-S77.
26 Whiting PW, Clouston A, Kerlin P. Black cohosh and other herbal remedies associated with acute hepatitis. Med J Aust. 2002;177:440-443.
27 Osmers R, Friede M, Liske E, et al. Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:1074-83.
28 Burdette JE, Liu J, Chen SN, et al. Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:5661-5670.
29 Beck V, Unterrieder E, Krenn L, et al. Comparison of hormonal activity (estrogen, androgen and progestin) of standardized plant extracts for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;84:259-268.
30 Rockwell S, Liu Y, Higgins S. Alteration of the effects of cancer therapy agents on breast cancer cells by the herbal medicine black cohosh. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;90:233-239.
31 O'Connor AM, Merel NH, Te HS, Cohen SM. A case of autoimmune hepatitis associated with the use of black cohosh [abstract]. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(9 suppl):S165.
32 Wuttke W, Gorkow C, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause. 2006;13:185-196.
33 Nappi RE, Malavasi B, Brundu B, et al. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: a randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20:30-35.
34 Newton K, Reed S, Grothaus L, et al.. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas. 2005;16:134-146.
35 Frei-Kleiner S, Schaffner W, Rahlfs VW, et al. Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Maturitas. 2005;51:397-404.
36 Verhoeven MO, van der Mooren MJ, van de Weijer PH, et al. Effect of a combination of isoflavones and Actaea racemosa Linnaeus on climacteric symptoms in healthy symptomatic perimenopausal women: a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Menopause. 2005;12:412-20.
37 Uebelhack R, Blohmer JU, Graubaum HJ, et al. Black cohosh and St. John's wort for climacteric complaints: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:247-55.
38 Wuttke W, Gorkow C, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Menopause. 2006;13:185-96.
39 Jiang B, Kronenberg F, Nuntanakorn P, et al. Evaluation of the botanical authenticity and phytochemical profile of black cohosh products by high-performance liquid chromatography with selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:3242-3253.
40 Stromeier S, Petereit F, Nahrstedt A. Phenolic esters from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa do not cause proliferation effects in MCF-7 cells. Planta Med. 2005;71:495-500.
41 Bodinet C, Freudenstein J. Influence of marketed herbal menopause preparations on MCF-7 cell proliferation. Menopause. 2004;11:281-289.
42 Hostanska K, Nisslein T, Freudenstein J, et al. Cimicifuga racemosa extract inhibits proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by induction of apoptosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;84:151-60.
43 Pockaj BA, Gallagher JG, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of black cohosh in the management of hot flashes: NCCTG Trial N01CC1. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2836-2841.
44 Lynch CR, Folkers ME, Hutson WR. Fulminant hepatic failure associated with the use of black cohosh: a case report. Liver Transpl. 2006;12:989-992.
45 Wuttke W, Raus K, Gorkow C. Efficacy and tolerability of the Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) ethanolic extract BNO 1055 on climacteric complaints: A double-blind, placebo- and conjugated estrogens-controlled study. Maturitas. 2006 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print]
46 Spangler L, Newton KM, Grothaus LC, et al. The effects of black cohosh therapies on lipids, fibrinogen, glucose, and insulin. Maturitas. 2007 Jan 31. [Epub ahead of print]
47 Chung DJ, Kim HY, Park KH, et al. Black Cohosh and St. John's wort (GYNO-Plus®) for climacteric symptoms. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48:289-294.
48 Oktem M, Eroglu D, Karahan HB, et al. Black cohosh and fluoxetine in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms: a prospective, randomized trial. Adv Ther. 2007;24:448-461.
49 Bai W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Wang S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: A randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. 2007 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
50 Swanson SG, Drosman S, Helmond FA, et al. Tibolone for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and genital atrophy in postmenopausal women: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Menopause. 2006;13:917-925.
51 Reed SD, Newton KM, Lacroix AZ, et al. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs, and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause. 2007 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]
52 Shahin AY, Ismail AM, Zahran KM, et al. Adding phytoestrogens to clomiphene induction in unexplained infertility patients—a randomized trial. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16:580-588.
53 Kanadys WM, Bozena LG, Jan O. Efficacy and safety of Black cohosh ( Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa ) in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms--review of clinical trials] Ginekol Pol. 2008;79:287-96.
54 Borrelli F, Ernst E. Black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa ) for menopausal symptoms: A systematic review of its efficacy. Pharmacol Res. 2008 Jun 8.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -
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