Principal Proposed Uses
Probably Ineffective Uses
What Is Ginseng Used for Today?
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Ginseng?
Cold and Flus
Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction)
Interactions You Should Know About
1 Yoshimura H, Kimura N, Sugiura K. Preventive effects of various ginseng saponins on the development of copulatory disorder induced by prolonged individual housing in male mice. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1998;20:59-64.
2 Yun TK, Choi SY. Non-organ specific cancer prevention of ginseng: a prospective study in Korea. Int J Epidemiol. 1998;27:359-364.
3 Takahashi M, Tokuyama S. Pharmacological and physiological effects of ginseng on actions induced by opioids and psychostimulants. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1998;20:77-84.
4 Duda RB, Zhong Y, Navas V, et al. American ginseng and breast cancer therapeutic agents synergistically inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth. J Surg Oncol. 1999;72:230-239.
5 Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999;19:89-99.
6 Bittles AH, Fulder SJ, Grant EC, et al. The effect of ginseng on the lifespan and stress responses in mice. Gerontology. 1979;25:125-131.
7 Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. Pharmacological investigation of glycosides from Ginseng and Eleutherococcus.Lloydia. 1969;32:46-51.
8 Dua PR, Shanker G, Srimal RC, et al. Adaptogenic activity of Indian Panax pseudoginseng. Indian J Exp Biol. 1989;27:631-634.
9 Grandhi A, Mujumdar AM, Patwardhan B. A comparative pharmacological investigation of ashwagandha and ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;44:131-135.
10 Hiai S, Yokoyaa H, Oura H. Features of ginseng saponin induced corticosterone secretion. Endocrinol Jpn. 1979;26:737-740.
11 Ramachandran U, Divekar HM, Grover SK, et al. New experimental model for the evaluation of adaptogenic products. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:275-281.
12 Oura HS, Hiai S, Nabetani S, et al. Effect of ginseng extract on endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome. Planta Med. 1975;28:76-88.
13 Singh VK, Agarwal SS, Gupta BM. Immunomodulatory activity of Panax ginseng extract. Planta Med. 1984;50:462-465.
14 Singh VK, George CX, Singh N. Combined treatment of mice with Panax ginseng extract and interferon inducer. Amplification of host resistance to Semliki forest virus. Planta Med. 1983;47:234-236.
15 Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, et al. Efficacy and safety of the standardised ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs Exp Clin Res . 1996;22:65-72.
16 Scaglione F, Ferrara F, Dugnani S, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of two extracts of Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1990;16:537-542.
17 Scaglione F, Cogo R, Cocuzza C, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (G115) on alveolar macrophages from patients suffering with chronic bronchitis. Int J Immunother. 1994;10:21-24.
18 Srisurapanon S, Rungroeng K, Apibal S, et al. The effect of standardized ginseng extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets: a preliminary study in young healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 1997;80(suppl 1):S81-S85.
19 Melchior J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:341-350.
20 Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:1373-1375.
21 Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1009-1013.
22 Vuksan V, Xu Z, Jenkins AL, et al. American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolium L. ) improves long term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Presented at: 60th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association; June 9-13, 2000; San Antonio, TX.
23 Sievenpiper JL, Stavro MP, Leiter LA, et al. Variable effects of ginseng: American ginseng ( Panax quinquefolius L.) with a low ginsenoside content does not affect postprandial glycemia in normal subjects [abstract]. Diabetes. 2001;50(suppl 2).
24 Sorensen H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res. 1996;57:959-968.
25 Sandberg F, Dencker L. Experimental and clinical tests on ginseng. Z Phytother. 1994;15:38-42.
26 D'Angelo L, Grimaldi R, Caravaggi M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of a standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15-22.
27 Siegl C, Siegl HJ. The possible revision of impaired mental abilities in old age: a double-blind study with Panax ginseng [in German]. Therapiewoche. 1979;29:4206,4209-4216.
28 Wesnes KA, Faleni RA, Hefting NR, et al. The cognitive, subjective, and physical effects of a ginkgo biloba/panax ginseng combination in healthy volunteers with neurasthenic complaints. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33:677-683.
29 Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Alt Complement Med. 1995;13:9-12.
30 Cherdrungsi P, Rungroeng K. Effects of standardized ginseng extract and exercise training on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in humans. Korean J Ginseng Sci. 1995;19:93-100.
31 Forgo I. Effect of drugs on physical exertion and the hormonal system of athlete [in German]. MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1983;125:822-824.
32 McNaughton LG, Egan G, Caelli G. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int J Clin Nutr Rev. 1989;9:32-35.
33 Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones [in German]. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
34 Engles HJ, Wirth JC. No ergogenic effects of ginseng ( Panax ginseng , CA Meyer) during graded maximal aerobic exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:1110-1115.
35 Engels HJ, Said JM, Wirth JC, et al. Failure of chronic ginseng supplementation to affect work performance and energy metabolism in healthy adult females. Nutr Res. 1996;16:1295-1305.
36 Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, et al. No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:263-271.
37 Teves MA, Wright JE, Welch MJ, et al. Effects of ginseng on repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15:162.
38 Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, et al. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults' peak aerobic exercise performance. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:462-466.
39 Lifton B, Otto RM, Wygand J. The effect of ginseng on acute maximal aerobic exercise [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(suppl 5):S249.
40 Kolokouri I, Englels H-J, Cieslak T, et al. Effect of chronic ginseng supplementation on short duration, supramaximal exercise test performance [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(suppl 5):S117.
41 Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:482-489.
42 Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus ) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:444-451.
43 Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, et al. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996;22:323-329.
44 Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:1373-1375.
45 Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones [in German]. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
46 Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:655-660.
47 Yun TK, Choi SY. Non-organ specific cancer prevention of ginseng: a prospective study in Korea. Int J Epidemiol. 1998;27:359-364.
48 Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999;19:89-99.
49 Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, et al. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1009-1013.
50 Baldwin CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. What pharmacists should know about ginseng. Pharm J. 1986;237:583-586.
51 Cui J, Garle M, Eneroth P, et al. What do commercial ginseng preparations contain? [letter]. Lancet. 1994;344:134.
52 Baldwin CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. What pharmacists should know about ginseng. Pharm J. 1986;237:583-586.
53 Hess FG, Parent RA, Cox GE, et al. Reproduction study in rats on ginseng extract G115. Food Chem Toxicol. 1982;20:189-192.
54 Newall C, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:143,148.
55 Sonnenborn U, Proppert Y. Ginseng ( Panax ginseng CA Meyer). Br J Phytother. 1991;2:3-14.
56 Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, et al. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999;19:89-99.
57 Forgo I, Kayasseh L, Staub JJ. Effect of a standardized ginseng extract on general well-being, reaction time, lung function and gonadal hormones [in German]. Med Welt. 1981;32:751-756.
58 Siegel RK. Ginseng abuse syndrome. Problems with the panacea. JAMA. 1979;241:1614-1615.
59 Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press; 1994.
60 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1998.
61 Kroll D. Unpublished communication. University of Colorado School of Pharmacy. 1998.
62 Jones BD, Runikis AM. Interaction of ginseng with phenelzine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;7:201-202.
63 McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. Can Med Assoc J. 1996;155:293-295.
64 Janetzky K, Morreale AP. Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1997;54:692-693.
65 Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, et al. Effects of Panax ginseng CA Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panminerva Med. 1996;38:249-254.
66 Scaglione F, Weiser K, Allessandria M. Effects of the standardised ginseng extract G115 in patients with chronic bronchitis. Clin Drug Invest. 2001;21:41-45.
67 Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet. 2000;355:134-138.
68 Greenspan EM Ginseng and vaginal bleeding [letter]. JAMA. 1983;249:2018.
69 Hammond TG, Whitworth JA Adverse reactions to ginseng [letter]. Med J Aust. 1981;1:492.
70 Palmer BV, et al. Gin Seng and mastalgia [letter]. Br Med J. 1978;1:1284.
71 Punnonen R, Lukola A Oestrogen-like effect of ginseng. Br Med J. 1980;281:1110.
72 Engels H-J, et al. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. J Strength Conditioning Res. 2001;15:290-295.
73 Choi HK, et al. Clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impotence Res. 1995;7:181-186.
74 Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 2001;70:431-442.
75 Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:375-379.
76 Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon P. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause. 2002;9:145-150.
77 Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol. 2002;168:2070-2073.
78 Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba , ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to heathy young adults. Physiol Behav. 2002;75:739-751.
79 Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, et al. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba / Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;152:353-361.
80 Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, et al. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. J Urol. 2002;168:2070-2073.
81 Engels HJ, Fahlman MM, Wirth JC. Effects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:690-696.
82 Vazquez I, Aguera-Ortiz LF. Herbal products and serious side effects: a case of ginseng-induced manic episode. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;105:76-77.
83 Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:369-378.
84 Ernst E. Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with synthetic drugs: a systematic review. J Intern Med. 2002;252:107-113.
85 McElhaney JE, Gravenstein S, Cole SK, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults. J Am GeriatrSoc. 2004;52:13-19.
86 Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, et al. Null and opposing effects of Asian ginseng ( Panax ginseng CA Meyer) on acute glycemia: results of two acute dose escalation studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22:524-532.
87 Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Sung MK, et al. Safety and efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng Intervention (SAEKI): results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in type 2 diabetes [abstract 587P]. American Diabetes Association 63rd Annual Scientific Sessions; June 13-17, 2003; New Orleans, LA.
88 Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, et al. American ginseng reduces warfarin's effect in healthy patients. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:23-27.
89 Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of St John's wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;57:592-599.
90 Chan LY, Chiu PY, Lau TK. An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb(1)-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2166-2168.
91 Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med. 2004;34:51-61.
92 Farnsworth NR, Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD, et al. Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus): current status as an adaptogen. Econ Med Plant Res. 1985;1:156-215.
93 Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, et al. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang® and an echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res. 2004;18:47-53.
94 Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:589-597.
95 Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin R, et al. Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2005;173:1043-1048.
96 McElhaney JE, Goel V, Toane B, et al. Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:153-157.
97 Sievenpiper JL, Sung MK, Di Buono M, et al. Korean red ginseng rootlets decrease acute postprandial glycemia: results from sequential preparation- and dose-finding studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:100-107.
98 Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, et al. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23:248-258.
99 Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, et al. Null and opposing effects of Asian ginseng ( Panax ginseng CA Meyer) on acute glycemia: results of two acute dose escalation studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22:524-532.
100 Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL. Herbal remedies in the management of diabetes: lessons learned from the study of ginseng. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005;15:149-160.
101 Stavro PM, Woo M, Leiter LA, et al. Long-term intake of North American ginseng has no effect on 24-hour blood pressure and renal function. Hypertension. 2006;47:791-796.
102 Vuksan V, Sung MK, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]
103 Kim JH, Park CY, Lee SJ. Effects of Sun Ginseng on subjective quality of life in cancer patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006;31:331-334.
104 Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. The glycaemic effects of single doses of Panax ginseng in young healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:639-642.
105 Kulaputana O, Thanakomsirichot S, Anomasiri W. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:1172-1179.
106 Jang DJ, Lee MS, Shin BC, et al. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: a systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jun 9.
107 Geng J, Dong J, Ni H, et al. Ginseng for cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD007769.
108 Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE, et al. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci. 2005;7:325-333.
109 Scholey A, Ossoukhova A, Owen L, et al. Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;212(3):345-356.
110 Oh KJ, Chae MJ, Lee HS, Hong HD, Park K. Effects of Korean red ginseng on sexual arousal in menopausal women: placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover clinical study. J Sex Med. 2010;7(4 Pt 1):1469-1477.
111 Lee SH, Ahn YM, Ahn SY, Doo HK, Lee BC. Interaction between warfarin and Panax ginseng in ischemic stroke patients. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(6):715-721.
112 Beckert BW, Concannon MJ, Henry SL, Smith DS, Puckett CL. The effect of herbal medicines on platelet function: an in vivo experiment and review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120(7):2044-2050.
113 Yun TK, Zheng S, Choi SY, et al. Non-organ-specific preventive effect of long-term administration of Korean red ginseng extract on incidence of human cancers. J Med Food. 2010;13(3):489-494.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -
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