Calcium Channel Blockers
- Amlodipine (Norvasc)
- Bepridil hydrochloride (Vascor)
- Diltiazem (Cardizem, Cardizem CD, Cardizem SR, Dilacor XR, Tiamate, Tiazac)
- Felodipine (Plendil)
- Isradipine (DynaCirc, DynaCirc CR)
- Nicardipine hydrochloride (Cardene, Cardene SR)
- Nifedipine (Procardia, Procardia XL, Adalat, Adalat CC)
- Nimodipine (Nimotop)
- Nisoldipine (Sular)
- Verapamil (Calan, Calan SR, Covera-HS, Isoptin, Isoptin SR, Verelan)
1 Bar-Or D and Gasiel Y. Calcium and calciferol antagonise effect of verapamil in atrial fibrillation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) . 1981;282:1585-1586.
2 Hariman RJ, Mangiardi LM, McAllister RG Jr, et al. Reversal of the cardiovascular effects of verapamil by calcium and sodium: differences between electrophysiologic and hemodynamic responses. Circulation . 1971;59:797-804.
3 Guadagnino V, Greengart A, Hollander G, et al. Treatment of severe left ventricular dysfunction with calcium chloride in patients receiving verapamil. J Clin Pharmacol. 1987;27:407-409.
4 Salerno DM, Anderson B, Sharkey PJ, et al. Intravenous verapamil for treatment of multifocal atrial tachycardia with and without calcium pretreatment. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:623-628.
5 Luscher TF, Noll G, Sturmer T, et al. Calcium gluconate in severe verapamil intoxication. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:718-720.
6 Orr GM, Bodansky HJ, Dymond DS, et al. Fatal verapamil overdose. Lancet. 1982;2:1218-1219.
7 Kuhn M and Schriger DL. Low-dose calcium pretreatment to prevent verapamil-induced hypotension. Am Heart J. 1992;124:231-232.
8 Shinozuka K, Umegaki K, Kubota Y, et al. Feeding of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) enhances gene expression of hepatic cytochrome P-450 and attenuates the hypotensive effect of nicardipine in rats. Life Sci. 2002;70:2783-2792.
9 Yeum CH, Choi JS. Effect of naringin pretreatment on bioavailability of verapamil in rabbits. Arch Pharm Res. 2006;29:102-107.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing
All rights reserved.