Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
- Climate—Living in a colder climate early in life may increase your risk of developing MS. This could be related to getting less sun exposure.
- Smoking —Smoking is also thought to be associated with a higher risk of MS.
Calvagna M. Vitamin D. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated April 5, 2011. Accessed August 31, 2012.
Ebers GC. Environmental factors and MS. Lancet Neurology . 2008;7(3):268-277.
Multiple sclerosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated August 10, 2012. Accessed August 31, 2012.
Multiple Sclerosis Society. News item. Multiple Sclerosis Society website. Available at: http://www.nationalmssociety.org/news/news-detail/index.aspx?nid=2568 . Accessed August 31, 2012.
Multiple Sclerosis. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple%5Fsclerosis/multiple%5Fsclerosis.htm . Accessed August 31, 2012.
Nolan D, et al. Contributions of vitamin D response elements and HLA promoters to multiple sclerosis risk. Neurology. 2012;July 11.
About MS. National Multiple Sclerosis Society website. Available at: http://nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-we-know-about-ms/treatments/index.aspx . Accessed August 31, 2012.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -
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