Risk Factors for Heart Attack
Factors That Can Be Modified or Managed
Chronic Health Conditions
Factors That Cannot Be Changed
Alcohol and heart disease. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyEating/Alcohol-and-Heart-Disease%5FUCM%5F305173%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 14, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1731.
Cocaine, other drugs, and heart disease. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Cocaine-Marijuana-and-Other-Drugs-and-Heart-Disease%5FUCM%5F428537%5FArticle.jsp. Updated September 20, 2012. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Coronary artery disease major risk factors. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Coronary artery disease possible risk factors. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 31, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Iversen B, Jacobsen BK, et al. Active and passive smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction in 24,968 men and women during 11 year of follow-up: the Tromsø Study. 2013;28(8):659-667.
Jordan AS, McSharry DG, et al. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea. Lancet. 2014;383(9918):736-747.
Njolstad, I, Arnesen, E, Lund-Larsen, PG. Smoking, serum lipids, blood pressure, and sex differences in myocardial infarction. A 12-year follow-up of the Finnmark Study. Circulation. 1996;93:450.
Prescott, E, Hippe, M, Schnohr, P, et al. Smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study. BMJ. 1998;316:1043
Second hand smoke (SHS) facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data%5Fstatistics/fact%5Fsheets/secondhand%5Fsmoke/general%5Ffacts/index.htm. Updated March 4, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Sesso, HD, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B, et al. Seven-year changes in alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in men. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2605
Stern S, Behar S, et al. Cardiology patient pages. Aging and diseases of the heart. Circulation. 2003;108(14):e99-e101.
Sundquist K, Qvist J. The long-term effect of physical activity on incidence of coronary heart disease: A 12-year follow-up study. Prev Med. 2005;41(1):219-225.
Understanding your risk of heart attack. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/UnderstandYourRiskofHeartAttack/Understand-Your-Risk-of-Heart-Attack%5FUCM%5F002040%5FArticle.jsp. Updated February 4, 2014. Accessed April 4, 2014.
Who is at risk for a heart attack? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/risks.html. Updated December 17, 2013. Accessed April 4, 2014.
10/23/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lin HJ, Lee BC, Ho YL, et al. Postprandial glucose improves the risk prediction of cardiovascular death beyond the metabolic syndrome in the nondiabetic population. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1721-1726.
4/15/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Dahabreh IJ, Paulus JK. Association of episodic physical and sexual activity with triggering of acute cardiac events: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011;305(12):1225-1233.
1/12/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mora S, Buring JE, Ridker PM, Cui Y. Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with incident cardiovascular events in women, by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein b100 levels: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(11):742-750.
2/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Finkle W, Greenland S, et al. Increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction following testosterone therapy prescription in men. PLoS One. 2014;9(1).
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 03/15/2015 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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