- Fortified breakfast cereal
- Whole-wheat breads
- Orange juice and citrus fruits
- Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, broccoli, and romaine lettuce
- Lean red meat
- Dried fruits
- Fortified breakfast cereals
- Low-fat or nonfat dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese
- Fish canned with bones
- Green leafy vegetables
- Fortified soy milk or rice milk
- Fortified orange juice
- Other calcium-fortified foods
- Wash your hands before eating or preparing food.
- When preparing food, avoid cross-contamination of raw meats or poultry with other foods
- Cook meat to recommended temperatures
- Thoroughly reheat leftovers
- Avoid luncheon meats and hot dogs unless reheated until steaming
- Drink only pasteurized juice and milk
- Avoid raw or soft cheeses
ChooseMyPlate.gov—US Department of Agriculture http://choosemyplate.gov
US Office on Women's Health http://womenshealth.gov
Dietitians of Canada http://dietitians.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://healthypregnancy.gc.ca
Artificial sweeteners and pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/artificialsweetener.html. Updated January 2013. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Health & nutrition for pregnant & breastfeeding women. US Department of Agriculture Choose My Plate website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/mypyramidmoms/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Nutrition in pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 20, 2013. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1479-1490.
Pregnancy. Office on Women's Health website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy. Updated September 27, 2010. Accessed August 27, 2013.
The caffeine corner: products ranked by amount. Centers for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/caffeine.pdf. Accessed August 27, 2013.
USDA national nutrient database for standard reference. US Department of Agriculture website. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. March of Dimes website. Available at: http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/vitamins-and-minerals-during-pregnancy.aspx. Updated March 2009. Accessed August 27, 2013.
11/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Christian P, Stewart CP, LeClerq SC, et al. Antenatal and postnatal iron supplementation and childhood mortality in rural Nepal: a prospective follow-up in a randomized, controlled community trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1127-1136. Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ. 2003;326(7389):571.
1/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Frazier A, Camargo C, et al. Prospective study of peripregnancy consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by mothers and the risk of peanut or tree nut allergy in their offspring. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Dec 23.
7/13/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Council on Environmental Health. Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem. Pediatrics. 2014 May 26.
8/26/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Gaskins AJ, Rich-Edwards JW, et al. Maternal prepregnancy folate intake and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124(1):23-31.
- Reviewer: Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 00/82/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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