Risk Factors for Hypertension
- Smoking —Smoking causes blood vessels to narrow, raising blood pressure. This repeated behavior can lead to permanent damage to the blood vessels and increase your risk of developing hypertension.
- Excess dietary sodium —Excess sodium causes the body to retain water. The excess fluid circulates in the blood, creating more pressure on arterial walls.
- Excess alcohol intake —Alcohol has negative effects on the nervous system and blood vessels, creating an increase in blood pressure.
- Lack of exercise —Sedentary lifestyles are associated with other unhealthy behaviors, such as poor diet and weight gain. Moderate to intense exercise, done regularly, improves heart function and promotes healthy arteries.
- Stress —Hormones released by your body when you are under stress can increase your blood pressure. This may aggravate high blood pressure in genetically susceptible individuals.
- Glucose intolerance or diabetes
- Metabolic syndrome —This condition is marked by elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose, and body weight. Excess weight centered around the midsection is of particular concern.
- Sleep apnea —Breathing stops for brief periods of time while you are sleeping.
- Kidney disease
- Hormonal disorders
- Panic disorder
—Taking oral contraceptives may increase your risk of hypertension in certain situations. You are more likely to develop hypertension while taking oral contraceptives if you:
- Have a family history of hypertension
- Have kidney disease
- Are overweight
- Had hypertension during pregnancy
Other medications—Certain medications can increase your risk of high blood pressure and/or interfere with medications you may take to lower your blood pressure. These include:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as naproxen and ibuprofen
- Diet pills
Jolly S1, Vittinghoff E, et al. Higher cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality among younger blacks compared to whites. Am J Med. 2010; 123(9):811-818.
Risk factors for hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 4, 2014. Accessed February 26, 2014.
Understand your risk for high blood pressure. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/Understand-Your-Risk-for-High-Blood-Pressure%5FUCM%5F002052%5FArticle.jsp. Updated September 3, 2013. Accessed February 26, 2014.
Who is at risk for high blood pressure? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbp/atrisk.html. Updated August 2, 2012. Accessed February 26, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/17/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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