Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer
|Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix|
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- Urine and blood tests
- Additional physical exam, including another pelvic exam in the operating room under anesthesia
- X-rays of various parts of the body, including lungs, bladder, kidney, lymph nodes
- Barium enema —to check intestines and rectum, helps to show the lower gastrointestinal tract on an x-ray
- CT or CAT scan—a series of x-rays put together by a computer to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body
- Ultrasonography—a procedure in which sound waves are bounced off tissues and the echoes produce a picture
- MRI —a procedure in which a magnet linked to a computer is used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body
- Stage 0—The abnormal cells are found only in the first layer of cells lining the uterus.
- Stage I—Cancer involves the cervix but is still confined to the uterus. This stage has six levels depending upon the size of the cancer: IA, IA1, IA2, IB, IB1, and IB2.
- Stage II—Cancer has spread to nearby areas but is still inside the pelvic area. This stage has two levels depending upon whether the cancer has spread to the upper two-thirds of the vagina (IIA) or into the pelvis (IIB).
- Stage III—Cancer has spread throughout the pelvic area. This stage has two levels depending on whether there is the cancer has spread to the lower-third of the vagina (IIIA) or more broadly into the oelvis (IIIB).
- Stage IV—Cancer has spread to other parts of the body. This stage has two levels depending on which organs the cancer has spread to: bladder, rectum or both (IVA); or, more distant organs (IVB).
American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home.html .
American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/home/index.asp .
National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/ .
The National Women’s Health Information Center website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/ .
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 09/11/2012 -
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