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- Having a dental disease or recent dental surgery
- Liquids or solids that are sucked into the lungs
- Having bowel surgery
- Swallowing fragments of chicken or other bones
- Having an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in place for many years
- Having a weakened immune system
- Tissue damage
- Chronic granulomatous disease or other disorder that affects the immune system (children)
- Hard swellings that are usually painless and located around the mouth, neck, or jaw
- Swellings that may produce pus containing tiny, yellowish particles
- Drainage of pus through the skin of the chest or abdomen
- Weight loss
- Cough that produces sputum or blood
- Noticeable swelling or firm mass in the abdomen, especially the lower part
- Analyses of pus, sputum, or tissue
- Brush your teeth twice a day
- Floss daily
- Replace your toothbrush regularly
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association http://www.mouthhealthy.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Actinomycosis. DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 20, 2011. Accessed June 10, 2015.
Hall V. Actinomyces—gathering evidence of human colonization and infection. Anaerobe. 2008;14(1):1-7.
Naik NH, Russo TA. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: the role of actinomyces. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(11):1729-1732.
Sullivan DC, Chapman SW. Bacteria that masquerade as fungi: actinomycosis/nocardia. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010;7(3):216-221.
- Reviewer: David L. Horn, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 07/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/20/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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