Principal Proposed Uses
What Are the Possible Health Benefits of Chocolate?
Interactions You Should Know About
- MAO inhibitors : The caffeine in chocolate could cause dangerous drug interactions.
- Stimulant drugs such as Ritalin: The stimulant effects of chocolate might be amplified.
- Drugs to prevent heart arrhythmias or treat insomnia , heartburn , ulcers , or anxiety : Chocolate might interfere with their action.
1 Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C et al. Cocoa Reduces Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
2 Ding EL, Hutfless SM, Ding X et al. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutr Metab (Lond) . 2006 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print]
3 Farouque HM, Leung M, Hope SA et al. Acute and chronic effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Sci (Lond) . 2006 Mar 22. [Epub ahead of print]
4 Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H et al. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J Nutr. 2006;136:1565-1569.
5 Usmani OS, Belvisi MG, Patel HJ et al. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough. FASEB J . 2005;19:231-233.
6 Cannon ME, Cooke CT, McCarthy JS. Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products. Med J Aust . 2001;174:520-521.
7 Polagruto JA, Wang-Polagruto JF, Braun MM, et al. Cocoa Flavanol-Enriched Snack Bars Containing Phytosterols Effectively Lower Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels. J Am Diet Assoc . 2006;106:1804-1813.
8 Health Benefits of Chocolate Revealed. Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust website. Available at: http://www.hey.nhs.uk/pdf/media/chocolate.pdf . Accessed December 21, 2006.
9 Baba S, Osakabe N, KatoY, et al. Continuous intake of polyphenolic compounds containing cocoa powder reduces LDL oxidative susceptibility and has beneficial effects on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr . 2007;85:709-717.
10 Baba S, Natsume M, Yasuda A, et al. Plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL concentrations are altered in normo- and hypercholesterolemic humans after intake of different levels of cocoa powder. J Nutr. 2007;137:1436-1441.
11 Taubert D, MD, Roesen R, Lehmann C, et al. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide. JAMA. 2007;298:49-60.
12 Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, et al. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:38-50.
13 Ried K, Sullivan TR, Fakler P, et al. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012;8:CD008893.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -
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