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- Structural deformities in the foot, which may be related to genetics
- Family history of foot disorders
- Certain conditions, such as cerebral palsy , multiple sclerosis , or Marfan syndrome
- Flat feet , which transfers too much weight to the MTP joint
- Activities that put undue stress on the foot, such as ballet
- High-heel shoes
- Poorly fitting, narrow shows
- Tip of the big toe that turns in toward the other toes and may overlap the second or third toe
- Firm bump on the outside edge of the foot or at the base of the big toe
- Restricted or painful motion of the big toe
- Foot pain and stiffness
- Fluid-filled cyst between the skin and the bony lump
- Padding the bunion to reduce pain
- Taping the area to reduce stress and pain
- Shoes that are wide and deep in the toe area to relieve pressure on the bunion
- Shoe inserts to reduce symptoms and prevent worsening of the deformity
- Removal of the bony lump
- A more involved procedure to cut the bone and realign the joint
- Wear wide toed shoes and comfortable footwear that do not pinch the toes.
- Prevent a minor bunion from worsening with bunion pads and proper shoes.
American Podiatric Medical Association http://www.apma.org
OrthoInfo—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.org
Ontario Podiatric Medical Association http://www.opma.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Bunions. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery Ortho Info website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00155. Updated September 2012. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Bunion surgery. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery Ortho Info website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00140. Updated September 2012. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Ferrari J, Higgins JP, et al. Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2004;CD000964.
Foot care. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/foot-care. Updated January 22, 2015. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Hallux valgus and bunion. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 18, 2014. Accessed March 2, 2015.
Maffulli N, Longo UG, Marinozzi A, Denaro V. Hallux valgus: effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive surgery. A systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2011;97:149-167.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/10/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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