Type 1 Diabetes
(Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Juvenile-Onset Diabetes; Ketosis-Prone Diabetes; "Brittle" Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus Type 1; Diabetes, Type 1)
- People with chronic type 2 diabetes who lose the ability to make insulin.
- Some with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery. They may lose the cells that make insulin.
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- Family history of type 1 diabetes
- Certain ethnic groups, such as Northern European, Mediterranean, African American, or Hispanic
- Increased age of mother during pregnancy
- Risk increases with increase in birth weight
- Obesity during childhood
- Other autoimmune disorders, including:
- Cystic fibrosis
- Weight loss
- Increased urination
- Extreme thirst
- Fatigue, weakness
- Blurry vision
- Symptoms common with diabetes and a random blood test showing a blood sugar level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL* (11.1 mmol/L)
- Fasting blood test showing blood glucose levels greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) on two different days—test is done after you have not eaten for eight or more hours
- Glucose tolerance test results with blood glucose greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)—test is done after you eat glucose
- HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher—measure of blood sugar over the past 2-4 months
- Insulin level or C-peptide tests—to see how much insulin is being made by the pancreas
- Tests that look for antibodies that are working against your pancreas
- Follow a well-balanced meal plan with a variety of food groups.
- Eat at regular times each day. Include a bedtime snack in your meal plans. Do not skip meals
- Avoid highly refined carbohydrates. This includes sugar or high fructose products like soda.
Blood Sugar Testing
Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplant
Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas
- Severe kidney disease that requires a kidney transplant
- Acute diabetic complications or emergencies that can not be prevented by insulin
- Severe problems due to injecting large amounts of insulin
- Severe and frequent complications related to diabetes such as severe recurrent hypoglycemia
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. American College of Endocrinology. Medical guidelines for the clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Pract. 2007;13(suppl 1)3-68.
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. American College of Endocrinology. Medical guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus: the AACE system of intensive diabetes self-management. 2002 update. Endocrine Pract. 2002;8(suppl 1)S40-82.
Causes of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/causes/index.aspx. Updated August 27, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/AAG/ddt.htm. Updated August 1, 2011. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Diabetes type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 25, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Paviakis M, Khwaja K. Pancrease and islet cell transplantation in diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007;14:146-150.
Physical activity/exercise and diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(suppl 1)S58-62.
The DCCT/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Research Group. Retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes four years after a trial of intensive therapy. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:381-389.
Traina AN, Kane MP. Primer on pramlintide, an amylin analog. Diabetes Educ. 2011;37(3):426-431.
Type 1 diabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-1/?loc=DropDownDB-type1. Accessed September 30, 2014.
9/23/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. Continuous glucose monitoring and intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(14):1464-1476.
3/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cardwell CR, Stene LC, Joner G, et al. Birthweight and the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies using individual patient data. Diabetologia. 2010;53(4):641-651.
4/1/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Verbeeten KC, Elks CE, Daneman D, Ong KK. Association between childhood obesity and subsequent Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2011;28(1):10-18.
9/11/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Tovote KA, Fleer J, et al. Individual mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(9):2427-2434.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/11/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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