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- Gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, including calcification of the gallbladder (porcelain gallbladder)
- Increasing age—especially 65 years and older
- Physical abnormalities of the gallbladder and ducts, such as choledochal cysts or polyps of the gallbladder
- Exposure to some chemicals, such as azotoluene and nitrosamines, found in metal processing and rubber production
- Typhoid fever or chronic salmonella infection
- Abdominal pain
- Pain in the upper back (called referred pain)
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes—jaundice
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Liver and spleen enlargement
- Increased abdominal girth
- Blood tests
- Biopsy—The removal of a sample of tissue for testing. This is usually an open surgery.
Combined Modality Therapy (CMT)
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Gallbladder cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003101-pdf.pdf. Accessed November 26, 2014.
Gallbladder cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 9, 2014. Accessed November 26, 2014.
Gallbladder cancer. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/liver%5Ftumor%5Fcenter/conditions/gallbladder%5Fcancer.html. Accessed November 26, 2014.
Tumors of the gallbladder and bile ducts. The Merck Manual Professional Edition website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hepatic%5Fand%5Fbiliary%5Fdisorders/gallbladder%5Fand%5Fbile%5Fduct%5Fdisorders/tumors%5Fof%5Fthe%5Fgallbladder%5Fand%5Fbile%5Fducts.html. Updated November 2013. Accessed November 26, 2014.
10/1/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, et al. Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):755-765.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 11/2014 -
- Update Date: 10/01/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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