(Hashimoto's Thyroiditis; Underactive Thyroid)
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- Congenital defects of the gland or how it works
- Iatrogenic—occurs as the result of surgery or radiation therapy for thyroid cancer treatment
- Iodine deficiency—rare in the US
- Pituitary deficiency
- Unknown reasons
- Family history of hypothyroidism
- Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis
- Certain health conditions, such as infiltrative disorders, cancer, or infections
- Surgery, radiation therapy, or radioablation in the neck region
- Certain medications, such as lithium, iodine, or interleukins
- Pituitary adenoma—benign tumor of the pituitary gland
- Coarse, brittle hair, and hair loss
- Facial puffiness
- Dry skin
- Swollen hands or feet
- Cold intolerance
- Weight gain
- Achy feeling all over
- Depression and irritability
- Memory loss
- Difficulty concentrating
- Blurred vision
- Menstrual abnormalities or infertility
The American Thyroid Association http://www.thyroid.org
Office on Women's Health http://womenshealth.gov
Canadian Institute for Health http://www.cihi.ca
Thyroid Foundation of Canada http://www.thyroid.ca
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. AACE medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocrine Practice. 2002;8:457-469.
Escobar-Morreale HF, Botella-Carretero JI, Escobar del Rey F, et al. Treatment of hypothyroidism with combinations of levothyroxine plus liothyronine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4946-4954.
Hypothyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated November 12, 2013. Accessed November 25, 2013.
Roberts CG, Ladenson PW. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2004;363:793-803.
Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, et al. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management JAMA. 2004;291:228-238.
Thyroid hormone treatment. American Thyroid Association website. Available at: http://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-hormone-treatment. Published June 4, 2012. Accessed November 25, 2013.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 11/2013 -
- Update Date: 11/22/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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