|The genes that you inherit from your family may play a role in the development of OCD.|
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Obsessions—unwanted, repetitive, and intrusive ideas, impulses, or images; common obsessions include:
- Persistent fears that harm may come to self or a loved one
- Unreasonable concern with being contaminated
- Unreasonable concerns about safety
- Unacceptable religious, violent, or sexual thoughts
- Excessive need to do things correctly or perfectly
- Persistent worries about a tragic event
Compulsions—repetitive behaviors or mental acts to reduce the distress associated with obsessions; common compulsions include:
- Excessive checking of door locks, stoves, water faucets, and light switches
- Repeatedly making lists, counting, arranging, or aligning things
- Collecting and hoarding useless objects
- Repeating routine actions a certain number of times until it feels right
- Unnecessary rereading and rewriting
- Mentally repeating phrases
- Repeatedly washing hands
- Other anxiety disorders
- Organic brain syndrome
- Tourette syndrome
- Attention deficit disorder
- Cause significant distress
- Interfere with your ability to properly perform at work, school, or in relationships
- Exposure and response prevention—involves gradually confronting the feared object or obsession without giving into the compulsive ritual linked to it
- Aversion therapy—involves using a painful stimulus to prevent OCD behavior
- Thought switching—involves learning to replace negative thoughts with positive thoughts
- Flooding—involves being exposed to an object that causes OCD behavior
- Implosion therapy—involves being repeatedly exposed to an object that causes fear
- Thought stopping—involves learning how to stop negative thoughts
Anxiety Disorders Association of America http://www.adaa.org
International OCD Foundation http://ocfoundation.org
Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.cmha.ca
Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 18, 2014. Accessed August 21, 2014.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml. Accessed August 21, 2014.
OCD risk higher when several variations in gene occur together. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/science-news/2008/ocd-risk-higher-when-several-variations-in-gene-occur-together.shtml. Accessed August 21, 2014.
4/16/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Simpson HB, Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:621-630.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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