(Degenerative Joint Disease; Arthritis, Osteo-)
|Joints Affected by Osteoarthritis|
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- Increasing age
- Excess body weight—risk of osteoporosis increases with increasing body weight
- Family history of osteoarthritis
- Certain endocrine, metabolic, or neuropathic disorders, avascular necrosis
- Having an injury or surgery to the joint surface, especially the cartilage
- Having an occupation or doing physical activities that put stress on joints
- Mild-to-severe pain in a joint, especially after overuse or long periods of inactivity, such as sitting for a long time
- Creaking or grating sound in the joint
- Swelling, stiffness, limited movement of the joint, especially in the morning
- Deformity of the joint
Exercise and Physical Therapy
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors
- Topical pain medications that are applied to the skin
- Opioids and similar medications
- Viscosupplementation injection
- Corticosteroid injection
Heat and Ice
Mechanical Aids and Assistive Devices
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Do regular, gentle exercise, such as walking, stretching, swimming, or yoga.
- Avoid repetitive motions and risky activities that may contribute to joint injury, especially after age 40.
- With advancing age, certain activities may have to be stopped or modified. It is important to continue to be active, so find an activity that suits you.
American College of Rheumatology http://www.rheumatology.org
The Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org
The Arthritis Society http://www.arthritis.ca
Seniors Canada http://www.seniors.gc.ca
Degenerative arthritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 21, 2014. Accessed August 28, 2014.
Hochberg MC, Altman RD, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies in osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(4):465-474.
Fernandes L, Hagen KB, et al. EULAR recommendations for the non-pharmacological core management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72(7):1125-1135.
Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritistoday.org/about-arthritis/types-of-arthritis/osteoarthritis. Accessed August 28, 2014.
Osteoarthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Osteoarthritis/default.asp. Updated August 2013. Accessed August 28, 2014.
Sinusas, K. Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(1):49-56.
van den Berg WB. Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67:555-556.
10/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Fransen M, McConnell S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD004376.
12/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rutjes WJ, Nuesch E, Sterchi R, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002823.
10/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4675.
10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: US Food and Drug Administration. FDA clears Cymbalta to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm232708.htm. Updated April 19, 2013. Accessed July 23, 2013.
11/29/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011;16(2):109-117.
7/15/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Dilek B, Gözüm M, Sahin E, et al. Efficacy of paraffin bath therapy in hand osteoarthritis: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):642-9.
6/18/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: MQIC guideline on medical management of adults with osteoarthritis. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=47806. Updated August 1, 2013. Accessed June 18, 2014.
9/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Zhou ZY, Liu YK, et al. Body mass index and knee osteoarthritis risk: A dose-response meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Jul [Epub ahead of print].
- Reviewer: Fabienne Daguilh, MD
- Review Date: 06/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/03/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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