- Changes in brain function or metabolism
- Psychosocial stressors that combine to influence the brain's fear networks
- Family history
- Stressful life events
- Increased sensitivity to physical sensations
- History of another anxiety disorder or anxious temperament
- Cigarette smoking during adolescence and young adulthood
- Sudden and intense episodes of fear
- Racing, pounding, or skipping heartbeat
- Chest pain, pressure, or discomfort
- Difficulty breathing
- Choking sensation or lump in the throat
- Excessive sweating
- Tingling or numbness in parts of the body
- Chills or hot flashes
- Shaking or trembling
- Feelings of unreality or being detached from the body
- An urge to flee
- Fear of impending doom, such as death, a heart attack, suffocation, loss of control, or embarrassment
- Stomach pain
|Symptoms of Anxiety|
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Learning how to recognize what causes your fears
- Gradually forming healthier thinking patterns
- Doing breathing exercises to increase relaxation
- Reducing fear and feelings of terror
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Avoid drinks that contain caffeine
- Avoiding abusing alcohol and drugs
- Getting plenty of rest
- Scheduling a regular quiet time for yourself at home
- Participate in regular exercise—aim for at least 30 minutes per day most days of the week
Anxiety Disorders Association of America http://www.adaa.org
Mental Health America http://www.nmha.org
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca
Answers to your questions about panic disorder. American Psychological Association website. Available at: http://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/panic-disorder.aspx. Accessed November 26, 2013.
Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Updated August 12, 2010. Accessed November 26, 2013.
Panic disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated February 28, 2013. Accessed November 26, 2013.
Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia. Accessed November 26, 2013.
8/22/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Furukawa TA, Watanabe N, Churchill R. Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:305-312.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 11/2013 -
- Update Date: 11/26/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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