(PD; Paralysis Agitans; Shaking Palsy)
- Slowing down of movements (bradykinesia)
- Tremor at rest
- Muscle rigidity
- Loss of reflexes that maintain posture and equilibrium
|Part of the Brain Affected by PD—Yellow Section|
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- Family members with PD
- Exposure to toxins, such as insecticides, carbon monoxide , or manganese
- Certain medications, such as antipsychotics, antiseizures, antiemetics, or cardiovascular medications
- Certain health conditions, such as:
- IV drug use
- Problems with dexterity
- Difficulty with activities of daily living
- Stiffness and rigidity of muscles, usually beginning on one side of the body
- Tremors are present at rest, improve with movement, and are absent during sleep
- Slowness of purposeful movements
- Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as:
- Difficulty and shuffling when walking
- Poor balance
- Tendency to fall
- Loss of smell
- Sleep problems
- Flat, monotonous voice
- Trouble speaking (often speaking with a low volume)
- Increasingly mask-like face, with little variation in expression
- Drooling and excessive salivation
- Shaky, spidery, or small handwriting
- Seborrhea (a skin problem that causes a red rash and white scales)
- Trouble chewing and swallowing
- Urinary symptoms (frequency and urgency)
- Bowel movement symptoms (straining, constipation)
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Dopamine agonists
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- COMT inhibitors
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS)—implanting a device to stimulate certain parts of the brain; can decrease tremor and rigidity
- Thalamotomy and pallidotomy—destroying certain areas of the brain to improve tremor when medication does not work (not as common as deep brain stimulation)
- Nerve-cell transplants (research only)—to increase amount of dopamine made in the brain
National Parkinson Foundation http://www.parkinson.org
Parkinson's Disease Foundation http://www.pdf.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Parkinson Society Canada http://www.parkinson.ca
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Wider C, Wszolek CK. Movement disorders: insights into mechanisms and hopes for treatments. Lancet Neurology. 2009;8(1):8-10.
1/4/2011 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Spinks A, Wasiak J, Bernath V, Villaneuva E. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002851.
4/7/2014 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Marras C, Hincapié CA, et al. Systematic review of the risk of Parkinson's disease after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Mar;95(3S):S238-244.
9/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wippold FJ, Cornelius RS, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for dementia and movement disorders. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/DementiaAndMovementDisorders.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/03/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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