(PMS; Premenstrual Tension Syndrome)
|The Menstrual Flow|
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- Age: 25-40
- Going off birth control pills
- Major life stress
- Mood swings
- Diminished self-esteem
- Difficulty concentrating
- Sleep problems
- Appetite changes (eg, sugar and/or salt cravings, overeating)
- Weight gain
- Breast swelling and tenderness
- Gastrointestinal upset
- Muscle pain
Vitamins and Minerals
- Vitamin E (400 IU)—may reduce breast tenderness
- Calcium (1,000 mg)—may decrease bloating, depression, and aches
- Magnesium (400 mg)—may decrease pain, fluid retention, and improve mood
- Manganese (6 mg)—may help control symptoms of menstrual pain
- Diuretics to reduce bloating and fluid retention.
- Pain reliever to relieve cramps, headaches, and muscle aches
- Birth control pills to reduce physical symptoms
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to reduce emotional symptoms
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org/
Women's Health.gov http://www.womenshealth.gov/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca/
Premenstrual syndrome. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq057.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20120824T1006488269 . Accessed August 24, 2012.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated June 14, 2012. Accessed August 24, 2012.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) fact sheet. Women's Health.gov website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/premenstrual-syndrome.cfm . Updated May 18, 2010. Accessed August 24, 2012.
4/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Brown J, Shaughn O'Brien PM, Marjoribanks J, Wyatt K. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD001396.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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