|Giant Cell Arteritis|
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- Muscle pain and/or stiffness in the hip, shoulder, or neck areas
- Stiffness in the morning
- Unexplained weight loss
- Mood changes
- Blood tests
- Muscle biopsy
American College of Rheumatology http://www.rheumatology.org
Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org
The Arthritis Society http://www.arthritis.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Brooks RC, McGee SR. Diagnostic dilemmas in polymyalgia rheumatica. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1162.
Eberhardt RT, Dhadly M. Giant cell arteritis: diagnosis, management, and cardiovascular implications. Cardiol Rev. 2007;15(2):55-61.
Matteson EL, Gold KN, et al. Long-term survival of patients with giant cell arteritis in the American College of Rheumatology Giant Cell Arteritis classification criteria cohort. Am J Med. 1996;100:193.
Polymyalgia rheumatica. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases%5Fand%5Fconditions/polymyalgiarheumatica.asp. Updated February 2013. Accessed June 29, 2015.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2014. Accessed June 29, 2015.
Questions and answers about polymyalgia Rheumatical and giant cell arteritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Polymyalgia/default.asp. Updated August 2012. Accessed June 29, 2015.
Salvarani C, Cantini F, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:261.
Soubrier M, Dubost JJ, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica: diagnosis and treatment. Joint Bone Spine. 2006;73(6):599-605. Review.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO; Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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