(Cancer of the Prostate; Prostatic Carcinoma)
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- Family history of prostate cancer, especially father or brother
- Family history of prostate cancer diagnosed at a young age
- A high-fat diet
- A need to urinate frequently, especially at night
- Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine
- Not able to urinate
- Weak or interrupted urine flow
- Painful or burning urination
- Difficulty having an erection
- Painful ejaculation
- Blood in urine or semen
- Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs
- Digital rectal exam
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Have early stage prostate cancer that is growing slowly
- Are of an advanced age
- Have serious health problems (risks of treatment outweigh the benefits)
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy—removal of lymph nodes in the pelvis to determine if they contain cancer
- Radical retropubic prostatectomy—removal of the entire prostate and nearby lymph nodes through an incision in the abdomen
- Radical perineal prostatectomy—removal of the entire prostate through an incision between the scrotum and the anus
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)—removal of part of the prostate with an instrument inserted through the urethra (may be done to relieve symptoms)
- Conformal radiation therapy—conformal radiation therapy uses three-dimensional radiation beams that are conformed into the shape of the diseased prostate. This treatment spares nearby tissue the damaging effects of radiation.
- Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)— IMRT uses radiation beams of different intensities to deliver higher doses of radiation therapy to the tumor and lower doses to nearby tissues at the same time.
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists
- Estrogen therapy—rarely used now unless other treatments are not working
- Antifungal medications
- Antineoplastic agents
Other Treatment Options
- Cryosurgery—this involves using an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells
- Immunotherapy—a drug treatment that builds your immune system so that you can better fight cancer cells
- Targeted therapies—focus on the cancer cells, rather than attacking both the cancer cells and the healthy cells
- High-intensity focused ultrasound—an endorectal probe (a probe that is inserted into the rectum) is used to destroy cancer cells with ultrasound energy
- Eat a healthful diet. Your diet should be high in fruits, vegetables, and fish, and low in red meat.
- Ask your doctor about taking certain medications. For example, daily aspirin therapy and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors may reduce your risk of prostate cancer.
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Prostate Cancer Canada http://www.prostatecancer.ca
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FDA approval for sipuleucel-T. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fda-sipuleucel-T. Updated July 3, 2013. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Imatinib. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 1, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
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Prostate cancer staging and imaging. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 1, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
What is biological therapy? National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/treatment/biologicaltherapy. Accessed September 25, 2014.
What is provenge immunotherapy? Provenge website. Available at: http://www.provenge.com/advanced-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy.aspx. Accessed July 31, 2012.
2/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Smith DP, King MT, Egger S, et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b4817.
2/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mahmud SM, Franco EL, Aprikian AG. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and prostate cancer risk: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jan 20.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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