Rh Incompatibility and Isoimmunization
- Induced abortion
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Trauma during pregnancy
- Amniocentesis or other invasive testing procedures related to pregnancy—rare
|Blood Flow to Fetus|
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- Had a prior pregnancy with a baby that was Rh positive
- Had a prior blood transfusion or amniocentesis
- Did not receive Rh immunization prophylaxis during a prior pregnancy with an Rh-positive baby
- Swelling of the body, which may be associated with heart failure or respiratory problems.
- Has a yellow or orange appearance to the skin
- Does not sleep
- Is hard to wake up
- Is not breastfeeding or has difficulty sucking from a bottle
- Is restless or fussy
- High pitched crying or crying that won't stop
- A bowed body
- A stiff, limp, or floppy body
- Strange eye movements
- Aggressive hydration
- Phototherapy —light therapy to treat skin conditions
Swelling of the Body (Hydrops fetalis)
- Intrauterine fetal transfusion—to replace blood cells that are being destroyed during pregnancy
- Early induction of labor
- A direct transfusion of packed red blood cells which are compatible with the infant's blood
- An exchange transfusion to remove the mother's antibodies
- Control of heart failure and fluid retention
Kernicterus may be treated with:
- Exchange transfusion—replacing baby's blood with blood with Rh-negative blood cells
- Cognitive delays
- Movement disorders
- Hearing loss
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
American Pregnancy Association http://www.americanpregnancy.org
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 7, 2014. Accessed March 18, 2014.
Jaundice and kernicterus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/jaundice/facts.html. Updated June 27, 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014.
Rh factor. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/rh-factor. Updated April 2006. Accessed March 18, 2014.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 03/18/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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