(Primary Sjogren's Syndrome; Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome)
- Primary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs alone
- Secondary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs with other rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, or lupus
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- Viral infections
- Environmental factors
- Other rheumatic or autoimmune diseases
- Certain gene markers
- Red, burning, itching, and/or dry eyes
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Loss of taste and smell
- Dry skin, nose, throat, and/or lungs
- Swollen salivary glands
- Severe dental cavities caused by dry mouth
- Oral yeast infections
- Vaginal dryness
- Skin rashes
- Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
- Muscle pain
- Blood vessels
- The nervous system
- Organs such as the lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and thyroid
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Lip biopsy
- Schirmer test to measure tear production
- Slit-lamp examination
- Joint and muscle pain
- Inflammation and swelling
- Exercise to relieve stiffness in the joints
- Sipping liquids and sucking on sugar-free candies to relieve dryness
- Good oral hygiene and regular dental checkups
- Using unscented moisturizers to help relieve dry skin
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association http://www.aarda.org
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation http://www.sjogrens.org
Alberta Health http://www.health.alberta.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Fox RI. Sjogren’s syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366:321-331.
Kassan SS, Montsopolous HM. Clinical manifestations of Sjogren’s disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1275-1284.
Papas, et al. Successful treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in Sjogren's syndrome patients with oral pilocarpine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-adjustment study. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:169-177.
Pertovaara M, Korpela M, et al. Clinical follow up study of 87 patients with sicca symptoms (dryness of eyes or mouth, or both). Ann Rheum Dis. 1999; 58:423.
Ramos-Casals M, Tzioufas AG, Font J. Primary Sjögren's syndrome: new clinical and therapeutic concepts. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:347.
Sjogren's syndrome. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases%5FAnd%5FConditions/Sj%C3%B6gren%5Fs%5FSyndrome. Updated July 2012. Accessed June 3, 2014.
Venables PJ. Management of patients presenting with Sjogren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:791-807.
What you need to know about Sjogren's syndrome. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/0200/0220.asp. Accessed June 3, 2014.
7/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Liang Y, Yang Z, et al. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and malignancy risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;73(6):1151-1156.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014 -
- Update Date: 07/07/2014 -
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
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